1400 - 1442 (42 years)
|1. ||John Of PORTUGAL was born 13 Jan 1400, Santarem (son of John I King Of PORTUGAL and Philippa Of LANCASTER); died 18 Oct 1442, Alcacer do Sal. |
- Residence: Grand Master of the Order of St. James
- Residence: Constable of Portugal
John of Portugal (Portuguese: Jo„o, pron. IPA [?u'?~u]) (SantarÈm, January 13, 1400 ? October 18, 1442, Alc·cer do Sal) was a Prince of Portugal of the House of Aviz, son of King John I of Portugal and his wife Philippa of Lancaster. He was General of the Kingdom, after the death of Nuno ¡lvares Pereira. He was also Lord of Reguengos, Colares and Belas. In 1424, John married his niece Isabella of Braganza, daughter of his half-brother Afonso, Duke of Braganza.
During the reign of his brother Edward, John joined his brother Pedro, Duke of Coimbra against the expedition to Tangier that would end in a disaster. After the disaster he defended that the recently conquered Ceuta should be offered in exchange for his brother Ferdinand, the Saint Prince, that was captive in Tangier, something that was against Ferdinand's wishes.
In the beginning of his nephew Afonso V's reign, the regency of the kingdom was delegated on Queen Mother Leonor of Aragon (his sister-in-law). This decision in the will of late King Edward was controversial and soon popular discontent grew. It was John who installed himself in the capital Lisbon and avoided a rebellion. After that he refused the proposals for an alliance with Leonor of Aragon and his half-brother Afonso, Duke of Braganza, and defended the summoning of the Cortes to name Pedro, Duke of Coimbra the new regent.
John — Isabel Of PORTUGAL. Isabel died 1445. [Group Sheet]
- James Of PORTUGAL was born 1423; died 1443.
- Isabel Of PORTUGAL was born 1430; died 15 Aug 1496, Averalo; was buried , Miraflores, near Burgos.
- Philippa Of PORTUGAL was born 1432; died Abt 1450.
- Beatrice Of PORTUGAL was born 1430; died 1506.
|2. ||John I King Of PORTUGAL was born 11 Apr 1358 (son of Peter I King Of PORTUGAL); died 14 Aug 1433, Lisbon; was buried , Batalha. |
Jo„o I, King of Portugal KG (pron. IPA /?u'?~u/), in English, John I (the Good or sometimes, the Great or even the One of Good Memory) (Lisbon, April 11, 1357 ? August 14, 1433 in Lisbon) was the 10th king of Portugal and Algarve and the first to use the title Lord of Ceuta. He was the natural son of Pedro I by a noble Galician lady called Teresa LourenÁo. In 1364 he was created grand-master of the Order of Aviz. He became king of Portugal and Algarve in 1385, after the 1383?1385 Crisis.
On the death of his lawful brother Fernando in October 1383, without a male heir, strenuous efforts were made to secure the succession for princess Beatrice, his only daughter. As heiress-apparent Beatrice had been married to king John I of Castile, but the popular voice declared against an arrangement by which Portugal would virtually have become united with Castile. The 1383?1385 Crisis followed as a period of political anarchy, when no king ruled the country.
On April 6, 1385, the council of the kingdom (cortes in Portuguese) met in Coimbra and declared Jo„o, then Master of Aviz, king of Portugal. This was in effect a declaration of war against Castile and its claims to the Portuguese throne. Soon after, the king of Castile invaded Portugal, with the purpose of conquering Lisbon and removing Jo„o I from the throne. Juan I was accompanied by French allied cavalry as English troops and generals took the side of Jo„o (see Hundred years war). Jo„o I then named Nuno Alvares Pereira, his loyal and talented supporter, general and protector of the Kingdom. The invasion was repelled during the Summer after the Battle of Atoleiros, but especially after the decisive battle of Aljubarrota (August 14, 1385), where the Castilian army was virtually annihilated. Juan I of Castile then retreated and the stability of Jo„o I's throne was permanently secured.
A statue of John in the PraÁa da Figueira, LisbonIn 1387, Jo„o I married Philippa of Lancaster, daughter of John of Gaunt who had proved to be a worthy ally, consolidating the union of the Anglo-Portuguese Alliance that endures to the present day.
After the death of Juan of Castile in 1390, without leaving issue by Beatrice, Jo„o I ruled in peace and pursued the economic development of the country. The only significant military action was the siege and conquest of the city of Ceuta in 1415. By this step he aimed to control navigation of the African coast. But in longer perspective, this was the first step opening the arabian world to medieval Europe, which in fact led to the age of sailing across whole world.
Contemporaneous writers describe him as a man of wit, very keen on concentrating the power on himself, but at the same time with a benevolent and kind personality. His youth education as master of a religious order made him an unusually learned king in the Middle Ages. His love for knowledge and culture was passed to his sons: Duarte, the future king, was a poet and a writer, Pedro, the duke of Coimbra, was one of the most learned princes of his time and Prince Henry the Navigator, the duke of Viseu, started a school of navigation and invested heavily in science and development of nautical topics. In 1430, his only surviving daughter, Isabella, married Philip III, Duke of Burgundy and enjoyed an extremely refined court in his lands; she was the mother of Charles the Bold.
John married Philippa Of LANCASTER Between 02 and 11 Feb 1387, Oporto. Philippa (daughter of John Of GAUNT and Blanche Of LANCASTER) was born 31 Mar 1360, Leicester; died 19 Jul 1415, Odivelas, near Lisbon; was buried , Batalha. [Group Sheet]
|4. ||Peter I King Of PORTUGAL was born 08 Apr 1320 (son of Alfonso IV Of PORTUGAL and Beatrice Of CASTILE); died 18 Jan 1367. |
Pedro I, King of Portugal (pron. IPA ['ped?u]; April 8, 1320 ? January 18, 1367) was the eighth king of Portugal and Algarve (in English, Peter I), (not to be confused with Pedro of Castile, also known as Pedro the Cruel) known as the Just (Port. o Justiceiro). He was the third but only surviving son of Afonso IV of Portugal and his wife, princess Beatrice of Castile. Pedro I succeeded his father in 1357.
Afonso IV married his daughter Maria to Alfonso XI of Castile, but quickly learned that she was being mistreated by her husband. Alfonso's cousin, Juan Manuel, had also been rebuffed by the king when his daughter Constanza was rejected in favor of the Portuguese princess. Feeling as though his daughter was being dishonored, Afonso was glad to enter into an alliance with Juan Manuel and married Pedro to Constanza. When Constanza arrived in Portugal, InÍs de Castro, the daughter of a Castilian landed aristocrat accompanied her as her lady-in-waiting. Pedro fell in love with InÍs very quickly and the two conducted an affair until Constanza's death in 1345. The scandal of this affair caused Afonso to banish InÍs from court, but this did not end the relationship since the two began living together in secret. According to the chronicle of Fern„o Lopes, this period was when Pedro began giving InÍs' brothers important positions at court. This behavior alarmed Afonso and made him believe that upon his death the Portuguese throne would fall to Castilians. This is the official motive behind Afonso's next actions: he sent three men to find InÍs and murder her in 1355. Pedro's rage at the murder of his love is what supposedly sparked his desire to revolt against his father. This revolt lasted from 1355 until 1356 when Afonso defeated his son. One year later, in 1357, Afonso died and Pedro succeeded the throne.
Fern„o Lopes labels Pedro as "the Just" and said that Pedro loved justice, especially the dispensing of it, something which he enjoyed doing himself. InÍs' assassins were the recipients of his harshest punishment. The three had escaped to Castile, but Pedro arranged for them to be exchanged with Castilian fugitives residing in Portugal with his nephew, the Castilian Pedro I. One man escaped, but the other two were brought to justice, and Lopes said that Pedro ripped their hearts out with his own bare hands. There is a possibility that Pedro of Portugal has been confused with Pedro I of Castile: they are both Pedro I, they both lived at the same time, the two were closely related, and are both credited with committing violent acts towards their subjects. Despite his gruesome legacy, Pedro of Portugal did lead a peacful reign and managed to install a system of justice which was relatively fair for the times. He attempted this with his Benepl·cito RÈgio in 1361, which forbade any Papal Bulls to be published without his prior consent. This was a result of the number of fake papal documents that had been entering the country. He also began the "nationalization" of the military orders by placing his youngest son Jo„o (the illegitinate son born after the death of InÍs) as the Master of the Order of Avis. He did attempt to claim that he and InÍs had been married and therefore their four children were legitimate, but nothing ever came of this, and InÍs' children went to live in Castile.
Legend holds that Pedro later had InÍs' body exhumed and placed on a throne, dressed in rich robes and jewels, and required all of his vassals to kiss the hand of the deceased "queen". This has never been proven, but what is known is that Pedro did have InÍs' body exhumed from her resting place in Coimbra and taken to AlcobaÁa where her body was laid to rest in the monastery. Pedro had two tombs commissioned for the monastery, one for each of them. The tombs still exist today; they are images of Pedro and InÍs facing each other, and inscribed on the marble is "AtÈ o fim do mundo..." or "Until the end of the world..."
Pedro was also the father of Fernando I and Jo„o I. Jo„o was the Master of the military order of Avis, and he would become the founder of the Avis dynasty in 1385 after defeating an attempt by Juan I to usurp the Portuguese throne.
|6. ||John Of GAUNT was born Mar 1340, St Bavon's Abbey, Ghent, Flanders (son of Edward III King Of ENGLAND and Philippa Of HAINAULT); died 03 Feb 1399, Leicester Castle, England; was buried , St.Paul's Cathedral, London, England. |
- Fact: John Plantagenet
- Fact: Knight of the Garter
- Fact: Prince of England
- Fact: 2nd Duke of Lancaster
- Fact: 5th Earl of Lancaster, Derby, Lincoln, and Leicester
- Fact: 20 Sep 1342, Earl of Richmond
- Fact: 13 Nov 1362, Duke Of Lancaster
- Fact: Sep 1371, Titular King of Castile and Leon
- Fact: 2 Mar 1390, Duke of Aquitaine
[Hulett FTW from MC Scott.FTW]
Earl of Richmond. Some say born Jun 1340, but see CP vol.XIV,p.421.Earl of Derby, Lincoln. Duke of Aquitaine. Lord of Beaufort & Nogent.Burke says he died at Ely House, Holborn King of Castile & Leon. Lord of Bergerac & Roche-sur-Yon. The Complete Peerage vol.VII,pp.410-416 & vol.XIV,p.421.
John of Lancaster (f Gaunt), Duke of Lancaster, fourth son, was married for the third time at Lincoln Cathedral on 13 Jan. 1395/6 to Katherine De Roet, widow of Hugh Swynford, Knt., of Coleby and Ketelthorpe, co., Lincoln. (died 1372), and younger daughter and co-heiress of Pain de Roet, Knt., Guienne King of Arms, a Hainaulter, and one of the knights of Queen Philippe's household. She was born probably in Hainault, about 1350 and had formerly been the governess to his daughters, and then his mistress, and by her he had children, born before marriage. The marriage was ratified and confirmed during the Great Schism by the Roman pope, Boniface IX. Their three sons were legitimised, with the assent of parliament, on 9 Feb. 1396/7, the patent confirmed by King Henry IV of 10 Feb. 1406/7, but with a saving clause barring them from succession to the throne. Their children were given the name Beaufort from their father's (lost) castle in Champagne which had devolved on him through his first wife, Blanche of Lancaster, a descendant of Blanche d'Artois who had purchased the lordship of Beaufort in 1270.
He was created Earl of Richmond on 20 Sep 1342. He was created Duke of Lancaster on 13 Nov 1362 in consequence of the marriage, and was ancestor of the Lancastrian Kings of England. In her right (Constance De Castille) John assumed in September 1371 the title of King of Castille and Leon. From 1376 until his death his diplomatic and military services in France and Guienne, and in Scotland, and his Spanish expedition (1386-88) formed interludes in the factious life of politics in which, as eldest uncle of King Richard II and his chief subject, he was involved. He was created Duke of Aquitaine on 2 Mar 1390.
John married Blanche Of LANCASTER 19 May 1359, Queen's Chapel, Reading. Blanche (daughter of Henry "The Wryneck" Of GROSMENT and Isabel DE BEAUMONT) was born 25 Mar 1345; died 12 Sep 1368, Bolingbroke Castle; was buried , St. Paul's Cathedral. [Group Sheet]
|7. ||Blanche Of LANCASTER was born 25 Mar 1345 (daughter of Henry "The Wryneck" Of GROSMENT and Isabel DE BEAUMONT); died 12 Sep 1368, Bolingbroke Castle; was buried , St. Paul's Cathedral. |
- 3. Philippa Of LANCASTER was born 31 Mar 1360, Leicester; died 19 Jul 1415, Odivelas, near Lisbon; was buried , Batalha.
- John Of LANCASTER was born Abt 1362; died , young; was buried , St. Mary's Church.
- Edward Of LANCASTER was born Abt 1365; died , young; was buried , St. Mary's Church.
- Elizabeth Of LANCASTER was born 21 Feb 1363/4; died 24 Nov 1425; was buried , Burford Church, Salop.
- John Of LANCASTER was born Bef 4 May 1366; died , young.
- Henry IV King Of ENGLAND was born 04 Apr 1366, Bolingbroke Castle, England; died 20 Mar 1413, Jerusalem Chamber, Westminster Abbey; was buried , Canterbury Cathedral.
- Isabel Of LANCASTER was born Abt 1368; died , young.
|12. ||Edward III King Of ENGLAND was born 13 Nov 1312, Windsor, England (son of Edward II King Of ENGLAND and Isabella Of FRANCE); died 21 Jun 1377, Sheen Palace, Surrey, England; was buried , Westminster Abbey, London, England. |
- Burial: Westminster Abbey, Westminster, Middlesex, England
- Fact: Between 1327 and 1377, King of England
- Crowned: 02 Feb 1327, Westminster Abbey
- Death: 21 Jun 1377, Shene Palace, Surrey, England
[Hulett FTW from MC Scott.FTW]
Reigned 1327-1377. Edward assumed effective power in 1330 after imprisoning his mother and executing her lover Roger de Mortimer who had murdered his father; therafter his reign was dominated by military adventures. His victory in Scotland, especially at Haildon Hill 1333 encouraged him to plan (1363) the union of England and Scotland. Through his mother he claimed the French throne thus starting (1337) the Hundred years war. His son John of Gaunt dominated the government during his last years. Died of a Stroke.
Edward III of England, King of England, Lord of Ireland, Duc d'Aguitaine, Earl of Chester, was born at Windsor Castle, co. Berks, on 13 Nov. 1312. He succeeded his father as from 24 Jan 1326/7, and was crowned aged fifteen at Westminster Abbey on 29 Jan 1326/7. During his first four years of his reign England was governed in his name by his mother and Roger Mortimer. Edward assumed personal rule on 19-20 Oct 1330, and had Mortimer executed. In 1333 he reversed Isabelle's and Mortimer's policy of peace with Scotland by invading it, reviving the ambitions of his grandfather King Edward I. Edward III's main foreign preoccupation, however, from 1337 onwards was France, whose king, Philippe VI, then declared his Ducy of Gascony forfeited. Edward formally assumed the title ensued with some respite from truces. The financial burden of the war roused resentment which was assuaged somewhat when Edward negotiated the main war taxes with the representatives of the shires and the borough communities sitting in parliament. He aroused enthusiasm for the war by engaging the chivalrous interests of the nobles in it and stirring up distrust and hatred of the French. Edward won the battle of Sluys in Flanders in June 1340. Bubonic plague (the Black Death) made its first appearance in England during his reign in 1348. His son Edward 'the Black Prince' captured the French king, Jean II, in his victory at Poitiers in 1356. In 1360 Jean the Duchy of Aquitaine in full sovereignty. The gains won by English armed forces however could not be sustained in the face of sustained French resources. In the war of 1369-75 Jean's son Charles V won back from Edward what had been conceded in 1360. By the tie of his death he had been discredited. His wife and consort died at Windsor Castle on 15 Aug 1369. Edward III of England, King of England, died at Sheen Palace, Richmond, Surrey, on 21 June 1377. They were buried at Westminster Abbey. The descendants of their sons, Lionel of Clarence, John of Lancaster, and Edmund of York, contested the Throne for generations ending the Wars of the Roses from 1455 to 1485.
Edward ruled for 50 years, reign dominated by the 100 Years' War with France. Edward's principal aim was to unite the nobility into a cohesive class of public servants, motivated by chivalry, enriched by the wealth he enabled them to win, and tied to the crown through marriage to his relatives.
Tall and handsome, with gold-red hair, Edward was a flamboyant affable, and generous man. He excelled in the knightly arts, and loved hunting and falconry. He was much loved by his people.
Edward married Philippa Of HAINAULT 24 Jan 1328, York Minster, York, Yorkshire, England. Philippa (daughter of William III and Jeanne Of VALOIS) was born 24 Jun 1311, Valenciennes; died 15 Aug 1369, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England; was buried , Westminster Abbey, Westminster, Middlesex, England. [Group Sheet]
|13. ||Philippa Of HAINAULT was born 24 Jun 1311, Valenciennes (daughter of William III and Jeanne Of VALOIS); died 15 Aug 1369, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England; was buried , Westminster Abbey, Westminster, Middlesex, England. |
- Crowned: 18 Feb 1330, Westminster Abbey
- Death: 14 Aug 1369, Windsor Castle
- Edward 'the black prince' Of ENGLAND was born 15 Jun 1330, Palace, Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England; died 08 Jun 1376, Westminster Palace; was buried , Canterbury Cathedral.
- Isabel Of ENGLAND was born 16 Jun 1332, Palace, Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England; died Bef 07 Oct 1382, London; was buried , Grey Friars, Newgate, Middlesex, England.
- Joan Of ENGLAND was born Abt Feb 1335, Palace, Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England; died 02 Sep 1348, Bayonne; was buried , Bayonne Cathedral.
- William Of ENGLAND was born Bef 16 Feb 1337, Hatfield, England; died Bef 08 Jul 1337; was buried , King's Langley, Hertfordshire.
- Lionel 'of Antwerp' Of CLARENCE was born 29 Nov 1338, Antwerp, Belgium; died 17 Oct 1368, Alba, Piedmont, Italy; was buried , Clare Priory, Suffolk.
- 6. John Of GAUNT was born Mar 1340, St Bavon's Abbey, Ghent, Flanders; died 03 Feb 1399, Leicester Castle, England; was buried , St.Paul's Cathedral, London, England.
- Edmund "Of Langley" of YORK was born 5 Jun 1344, King's Langley, Hertfordshire, England; died 01 Aug 1402, Langley, Hertfordshire, England; was buried , Church of the Mendicant Friars, Langley.
- Blanche Of ENGLAND was born Mar 1342; died Mar 1342, Tower of London; was buried , Chapel of St. Peter, Westminster Abbey.
- Mary Of ENGLAND was born 10 Oct 1344, Walton near Winchester, England; died Between 1361 and 1362; was buried , Abbey Church, Abingdon, Berkshire, England.
- Margaret Of ENGLAND was born 20 Jul 1346, Windsor, England; died Aft 01 Oct 1361; was buried , Abbey Church, Abingdon, Berkshire, England.
- William Of ENGLAND was born Bef 24 Jun 1348, Windsor, England; died Sep 1348; was buried 05 Sep 1348, St.Edmund's Chapel, Westminster Abbey.
- Thomas Of GLOUCESTER was born 07 Jan 1354/5, Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England; died Between 08 and 15 Sep 1397, Murdered at Calais, Pas-De-Calais, France; was buried , Westminster Abbey.
|14. ||Henry "The Wryneck" Of GROSMENT was born Abt 1300, Grosmont Castle, Grosmont, Monmouthshire, England (son of Henry Of LANCASTER and Maud DE CHAWORTH); died 24 Mar 1361, Leicester, England; was buried , Leicester Abbey. |
- Fact: Seneschal of England
- Fact: Earl of Derby, Lincoln and Leicester
- Fact: Duke of Lancaster
- Fact: First Founder Knight of the Garter
- Fact: The Good Duke
Henry died of the plague in Leicester.
Also known as the Good Duke, Duke of Lancaster, Earl of Derby, Lincoln and Leicester, Seneschal of England, First Founder Knight of the Garter.
His father having become blind about 1330, he early became prominent in public affairs. He was created Earl of Derby on 16 Mar 1336/7, and was summoned as such to Parliament in April 1337. He succeeded his father as Earl of Lancaster and Leicester and Steward of England in 1345. He was a Founder Knight of the Order of the Garter. He was created Earl of Lincoln on 20 Aug 1349, and Duke of Lancaster on 6 Mar 1350/1. By David II, King of Scotland, he was created Earl of Moray. His military activities (at that day including fighting at sea) filled his whole life from youth to within a few months of his death. Henry of Lancaster, Duke of Lancaster, died testate of the plague at Leicester on 24 Mar 1360/1 and was buried in the church of the Newark.
Henry married Isabel DE BEAUMONT Abt 1334. Isabel (daughter of Henry DE BEAUMONT, Knt. and Alice COMYN) died Aft 24 Mar 1356; was buried , Leicester Abbey. [Group Sheet]
|15. ||Isabel DE BEAUMONT (daughter of Henry DE BEAUMONT, Knt. and Alice COMYN); died Aft 24 Mar 1356; was buried , Leicester Abbey. |
Isabel is the daughter of Henry de Beaumont (d. March 10, 1339-1340), Lord Beaumont, Earl of Buchan, and his wife Alice Comyn (d. Bef August 10, 1349) (daughter of Alexander Comyn, Sheriff of Aberdeen.
They had 2 daughters: Maud and Blanche
- 7. Blanche Of LANCASTER was born 25 Mar 1345; died 12 Sep 1368, Bolingbroke Castle; was buried , St. Paul's Cathedral.
- Maud Of LANCASTER was born 4 Apr 1335; died 10 Apr 1362, Died of pestilence.