1609 - 1669 (59 years)
|2. ||Henry IV King Of FRANCE was born 13 Dec 1553 (son of Antoine Of NAVARRE and Jeanne III Of NAVARRE); died 14 May 1610. |
- Name: Henry III Of Navarre
Henry IV (French: Henri IV; December 13, 1553 ? May 14, 1610), was the first monarch of the Bourbon dynasty in France.
As a Huguenot, Henry was involved in the Wars of Religion before ascending to the throne; to become king he converted to Catholicism and in 1598 promulgated the Edict of Nantes which guaranteed religious liberties to the Protestants and thereby effectively ended the civil war. One of the most popular French kings, both during and after his reign, Henry showed great care for the welfare of his subjects and displayed an unusual religious tolerance for the time. He was murdered by a fanatical Catholic, FranÁois Ravaillac.
Henry was nicknamed Henry the Great (Henri le Grand), and in France is sometimes called le bon roi Henri ("good king Henry") or le Vert galant ("the Green gallant").
Although baptized as a Roman Catholic, Henry was raised as a Protestant by his mother Jeanne d'Albret; Jeanne declared Calvinism the religion of Navarre. As a teenager, Henry joined the Huguenot forces in the French Wars of Religion. In 1572, upon Jeanne's death, he became King Henry III of Navarre.
On 18 August 1572, Henry married Marguerite de Valois, sister of King Charles IX. Henry's marriage was believed by most to be an effort to bring religious peace to the kingdom. However, leading Catholics (possibly including Catherine de Medicis, mother of the bride) secretly planned a massacre of Protestants gathered in Paris for the wedding. In the resulting Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre, on 24 August, several thousand Protestants were killed in Paris and thousands more in the countryside. Henry escaped death only by pretending to convert to Roman Catholicism. He was kept in confinement, but escaped in early 1576; on 5 February of that year, he abjured Catholicism at Tours and rejoined the Protestant forces in the military conflict.
Henry of Navarre became the legal heir to the French throne upon the death in 1584 of FranÁois, Duke of AlenÁon, brother and heir to the Catholic King Henry III, who had succeeded Charles IX in 1574. Since Henry of Navarre was a descendant of King Louis IX, King Henry III had no choice but to recognize him as the legitimate successor. Salic law disinherited the king's sisters and all others who could claim descent by the distaff line. However, since Henry of Navarre was a Huguenot, this set off the War of the Three Henrys phase of the French Wars of Religion. The third Henry, Duke Henry of Guise, pushed for complete suppression of the Huguenots, and had much support among Catholic extremists. In December 1588 Henry III had Henry of Guise murdered, along with his brother, Louis Cardinal de Guise. This increased the tension further, and Henry III was assassinated shortly thereafter by a fanatic monk.
On the death of Henry III in 1589, Henry of Navarre nominally became the king of France. But the Catholic League, strengthened by support from outside, especially from Spain, was strong enough to force him to the south, and he had to set about winning his kingdom by military conquest, aided by money and troops bestowed by Elizabeth I of England. The League proclaimed Henry's Catholic uncle, the Cardinal de Bourbon, King as Charles X, but the Cardinal himself was Henry's prisoner. Henry was victorious at Ivry and Arques, but failed to take Paris.
After the death of the old Cardinal in 1590, the League could not agree on a new candidate. While some supported various Guise candidates, the strongest candidate was probably Infanta Isabella, the daughter of Philip II of Spain, whose mother Elisabeth had been the eldest daughter of Henry II of France. The prominence of her candidacy hurt the League, which thus became suspect as agents of the foreign Spanish, but nevertheless Henry remained unable to take control of Paris.
With the encouragement of the great love of his life, Gabrielle d'EstrČes, on 25 July 1593 Henry declared that Paris vaut bien une messe ("Paris is well worth a Mass") and permanently renounced Protestantism, thus earning the resentment of his former ally Queen Elizabeth. However, his entrance into the Roman Catholic Church secured for him the allegiance of the vast majority of his subjects, and he was crowned King of France at the Cathedral of Chartres on 27 February 1594. In 1598, however, he declared the Edict of Nantes, which gave circumscribed toleration to the Huguenots.
Monarchical Styles of
King Henry IV
Par la gr‚ce de Dieu, Roi de France et de Navarre
Reference style His Most Christian Majesty
Spoken style Your Most Christian Majesty
Alternative style Monsieur Le Roi
Henry's first marriage was not a happy one, and the couple remained childless. The two had separated, even before Henry had succeeded to the throne, in August, 1589 and Marguerite de Valois lived for many years in the chateau of Usson in Auvergne. After Henry had become king, various advisers impressed upon him the desirability of providing an heir to the French Crown, in order to avoid the problem of a disputed succession. Henry himself favored the idea of obtaining an annulment of his first marriage, and taking Gabrielle d'EstrČes as a bride, who had already borne him three children. Henry's councillors strongly opposed this idea, but the matter was resolved unexpectedly by Gabrielle d'EstrČes' sudden death in April 1599, after she had given birth prematurely to a stillborn son. His marriage to Marguerite was annulled in 1599, and he then married Marie de MČdicis in 1600.
Henry IV proved to be a man of vision and courage. Instead of waging costly wars to suppress opposing nobles, Henry simply paid them off. As king, he adopted policies and undertook projects to improve the lives of all subjects, which made him one of the country's most popular rulers ever.
A declaration often attributed to him is:
Si Dieu me prÍte vie, je ferai qu?il n?y aura point de laboureur en mon royaume qui n?ait les moyens d?avoir le dimanche une poule dans son pot!
God willing, every working man in my kingdom will have a chicken in the pot every Sunday, at the least!
This egalitarian statement epitomizes the peace and relative prosperity Henry brought to France after decades of religious war, and demonstrates how well he understood the plight of the French worker or peasant farmer. Never before had a French ruler even considered the importance of a chicken or the burden of taxation on his subjects, nor would one again until the French Revolution. After generations of domination by the extravagant Valois dynasty, which had caused the French people to pay to the point of starvation for the royal family's luxuries and intrigue, Navarre's charisma won the day.
Henry's forthright manner, physical courage and military success also contrasted dramatically with the sickly, effete langour of the last tubercular Valois kings, as evinced by his blunt assertion that he ruled with "weapon in hand and arse in the saddle" (on a le bras armČ et le cul sur la selle).
During his reign, Henry IV worked through his right-hand man, the faithful Maximilien de Bethune, duc de Sully (1560-1641), to regularize state finance, promote agriculture, drain swamps to create productive crop lands, undertake many public works, and encourage education, as with the creation of the College Royal Louis-Le-Grand in La FlËche (today PrytanČe Militaire de la FlËche). He and Sully protected forests from further devastation, built a new system of tree-lined highways, and constructed new bridges and canals. He had a 1200m canal built in the park at the Royal Chateau at Fontainebleau (which can be fished today), and ordered the planting of pines, elms and fruit trees.
Statue of Henry IV on the Pont NeufThe king renewed Paris as a great city, with the Pont Neuf, which still stands today, constructed over the River Seine to connect the Right and Left Banks of the city. Henry IV also had the Place Royale built (since 1800 known as Place des Vosges), and added the Grande Gallerie to the Louvre. More than 400 meters long and thirty-five meters wide, this huge addition was built along the bank of the Seine River, and at the time was the longest edifice of its kind in the world. King Henry IV, a promoter of the arts by all classes of peoples, invited hundreds of artists and craftsmen to live and work on the building?s lower floors. This tradition continued for another two hundred years, until Emperor Napoleon I banned it. The art and architecture of his reign has since become known as the Henry IV style.
King Henry's vision extended beyond France, and he financed several expeditions of Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Monts and Samuel de Champlain to North America that saw France lay claim to Canada.
Death and aftermath
Although he was a man of kindness, compassion, and good humor, and was much loved by his people, he was the subject of many murder attempts (for example by Pierre BarriËre and Jean Ch‚tel). On 14 May 1610, King Henry IV was assassinated in Paris by FranÁois Ravaillac, who stabbed the king to death while he rode in his coach. Henry was buried at the Saint Denis Basilica. Henry's widow, Marie de MČdicis, served as Regent to their 9-year-old son, Louis XIII, until 1617.
The reign of Henry IV made a lasting impact on the French people for generations after. A statue of Henry was erected on the Pont Neuf in Paris in 1614, only four years after his death. Although this statue - as well as those of all the other French kings - was destroyed during the French Revolution, it was the first one to be rebuilt, in 1818, and it still stands today on the Pont Neuf. A cult surrounding the personality of Henri IV emerged during the Restoration. The restored Bourbons were keen to downplay the contested reigns of Louis XV and Louis XVI, and instead emphasized the reign of the benevolent Henry IV. The song Vive Henri IV ("Long Live Henry IV") was used during the Restoration, as an unofficial anthem of France, played in the absence of the king. In addition, when Princess Maria Carolina of the Two Sicilies gave birth to a male heir to the throne of France, seven months after the assassination of her husband Charles Ferdinand, duc de Berry by a Republican fanatic, the boy was conspicuously called Henri in reference to his forefather Henry IV (see Henri, comte de Chambord). The boy was also baptized in the traditional way of BČarn/Navarre, with a spoon of vinegar and some garlic, as had been done when Henry IV had been baptized in Pau, although this custom had not been followed by any Bourbon king after Henry IV.
Today, while the rest of France marks the end of monarchist rule each year on Bastille Day, in Henry's birthplace of Pau, his reign as king of France is celebrated. It is a testament to the people's love and affection for Henry IV, whom the French people call 'le Grand' or 'The Great'.
Additionally, Henry IV had at least 11 illegitimate children. 
By Gabrielle d'EstrČe:
CČsar de Bourbon, Duke of VendŮme b.1594 1596(ligitimized) d.1665 married FranÁoise of Mercoeur and had issue.
In 1626, he participated in a plot against Cardinal Richelieu. He was captured and held in prison for three years. In 1641 he was accused of conspiracy again and this time fled to England.
Catherine-Henriette de Bourbon b.1596 1598(legitimized) d,1663 married Charles of Guise-Lorraine, Duke of Elbeuf.
Alexandre, Chevalier de VendŮme b.1598 1599(legitimized) d.1629
By Catherine Henriette de Balzac d'Entragues, Marquise de Verneuil:
Gaston Henri, Duc de Verneuil b.1601 1603(legitimized) d.1682 Married Charlotte Seguier, daughter of Pierre SČguier, Duc de Villemor.
Gabrielle Angelique, called Mademoiselle de Verneuil b.1603 d. 1627 Married Bernard de Nogaret de Foix, Duc de La Valette et d'Epernon.
By Jacqueline de Bueil, Countess de Moret (1580-1651):
Antoine, Count de Moret b.1607 1608(legitimed) d.1632 Abbot of St. Etienne
By Charlotte des Essarts, Countess de Romorantin:
Jeanne Baptiste b.1608 1608(legitimized) d. 1670 Abbess of Fontevrault.
Marie Henriette b.1609 d.1629 Abbess of Chelles.
Henry married Maria DE'MEDICI Oct 1600. Maria (daughter of Francesco DE'MEDICI, I and Johanna Of AUSTRIA) was born 26 Apr 1573, Florence; died 03 Jul 1642, Cologne. [Group Sheet]
|3. ||Maria DE'MEDICI was born 26 Apr 1573, Florence (daughter of Francesco DE'MEDICI, I and Johanna Of AUSTRIA); died 03 Jul 1642, Cologne. |
Marie de' Medici  (April 26, 1573, Florence ? July 3, 1642, Cologne), born in Italy as Maria de' Medici, was queen consort of France under the French name Marie de MČdicis. She was the second wife of King Henry IV of France, of the Bourbon branch of the kings of France. Later she was the regent for her son King Louis XIII of France
Born in Florence, Italy, she was the daughter of Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany and of Johanna, archduchess of Austria (1548 ? 1578). Her maternal grandparents were Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor and Anne of Bohemia. Anne was a daughter of Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary and his wife Anne de Foix.
Uncommonly pretty in her youth, in October 1600 she married Henri IV of France, following the annulment of his marriage to Marguerite de Valois. She brought as part of her dowry 600,000 crowns. Her eldest son, the future King Louis XIII, was born at Fontainebleau the following year.
Infighting, unhappy marriage
The marriage was not a successful one. The queen feuded with Henri's mistresses, in language that shocked French courtiers. Her largest infighting was with her husband's leading mistress, Catherine Henriette de Balzac d'Entragues, whom he had promised he would marry following the death of his former official mistress, Gabrielle d'EstrČes. When he failed to do so, and instead married Marie, the result was constant bickering and political intrigues behind the scenes. Although the king could have easily banished his mistress, supporting his queen, he never did so. She, in turn, showed great sympathy and support to her husband's banished ex-wife, Margaret of Valois, prompting Henri to allow her back into the realm.
During her husband's lifetime Marie showed little sign of political taste or ability. Hours after Henri's assassination in 1610 she was confirmed as Regent by the Parlement of Paris. She banished from the court his mistress, Catherine Henriette de Balzac d'Entragues. However, not very bright, extremely stubborn, and growing obese, she was soon entirely under the influence of her unscrupulous Italian favourite, Concino Concini, who was created Marquis d'Ancre and Marshal of France.
They dismissed Henri IV's able minister the duc de Sully. Through Concini and the Regent, Italian representatives of the Roman Catholic Church hoped to force the suppression of Protestantism in France. Half Habsburg herself, she abandoned the traditional anti-Habsburg French policy. Throwing her support with Spain, she arranged the marriage of both the future king Louis and his sister Elizabeth to members of the Spanish Habsburg royal family.
Under the regent's lax and capricious rule, the princes of the blood and the great nobles of the kingdom revolted, and the queen, too weak to assert her authority, consented (15 May 1614) to buy off the discontented princes. The opposition was led by Henri de Bourbon-CondČ, Duc d'Enghien, who pressured Marie into convoking the Estates General (1614-15), the last time they would meet in France until the opening events of the French Revolution.
In 1616 her policy was strengthened by the accession to her councils of Richelieu, who had come to the fore at the meeting of the Estates General. However, in 1617 her son Louis XIII, already several years into his legal majority, asserted his authority. The king effectively overturned the pro-Hapsburg, pro-Spanish policy by ordering the assassination of Concini, exiling the Queen to the Ch‚teau Blois and appointing Richelieu to his bishopric.
After two years of virtual imprisonment "in the wilderness" as she put it, she escaped from Blois in the night of 21/22 February 1619 and became the figurehead of a new aristocratic revolt headed by Gaston d'Orleans, which Louis' forces easily dispersed. Through the mediation of Richelieu the king was reconciled with his mother, who was allowed to hold a small court at Angers. She resumed her place in the royal council in 1621.
Coronation of Marie de' Medici in St. Denis (detail), Paris, by Peter Paul Rubens, 1622-1625The portrait by Rubens (above right) was painted at this time. Marie rebuilt the Luxembourg Palace (Palais du Luxembourg) in Paris, with an extravagantly flattering cycle of paintings by Rubens as part of the luxurious decor (left).
After the death of his favorite, the duke of Luynes, Louis turned increasingly for guidance to Richelieu. Marie de Medici's attempts to displace Richelieu ultimately led to her attempted coup; for a single day, the journČe des dupes, 12 November 1630, she seemed to have succeeded; but the triumph of Richelieu was followed by her exile to CompiËgne in 1630, from where she escaped to Brussels in 1631 and Amsterdam in 1638.
Her entry into Amsterdam was considered a triumph by the Dutch, as her visit lent official recognition to the newly formed Dutch Republic. Spectacular displays (by Claes Cornelisz. Moeyaert) and water pageants took place in the city?s harbor in celebration of her visit. There was a procession led by two mounted trumpeters; a large temporary structure erected on an artificial island in the Amstel River was built especially for the festival. The structure was designed to display a series of dramatic tableaux in tribute to her once she set foot on the floating island and entered its pavilion. Afterwards she was offered an Indonesian rice table by the burgomaster Albert Burgh. He also sold her a famous rosary, captured in Brazil, which she would like to have. The visit prompted Caspar Barlaeus to write his Medicea hospes ("The Medicean Guest") (1638).
Marie subsequently travelled to Cologne, where she died in 1642, scheming against Richelieu to the end.
HonorČ de Balzac encapsulated the Romantic generation's negative view:
"Marie de' Medici, all of whose actions were prejudicial to France, has escaped the shame which ought to cover her name. Marie de' Medici wasted the wealth amassed by Henri IV; she never purged herself of the charge of having known of the king's assassination; her intimate was d'…pernon, who did not ward off Ravaillac's blow, and who was proved to have known the murderer personally for a long time. Marie's conduct was such that she forced her son to banish her from France, where she was encouraging her other son, Gaston, to rebel; and the victory Richelieu at last won over her (on the Day of the Dupes) was due solely to the discovery the cardinal made, and imparted to Louis XIII, of secret documents relating to the death of Henri IV." ? Essay "Catherine de Medicis".
|4. ||Antoine Of NAVARRE was born 22 Apr 1518, La Fere, Picardie, France (son of Charles IV De Bourbon Duke Of VENDOME); died 17 Nov 1562. |
Antoine de Bourbon, duc de VendŮme (22 April 1518 ? 17 November 1562), was head of the House of Bourbon from 1537 to 1562, and King-consort of Navarre from 1555 to 1562.
He was born at La FËre, Picardie, France, the son of Charles IV de Bourbon, duc de VendŮme (1489-1537) and his wife, Francoise d'Alencon (d. 1550). He was the older brother of Louis I de Bourbon, Prince de CondČ.
On 20 October 1548 at Moulins he married Jeanne d'Albret, Queen of Navarre, daughter of Henri d'Albret (Henri II of Navarre) and his wife Margaret of AngoulÍme. By his marriage, he became Count of Foix, of Bigorre, of Armagnac, of Perigord, and Viscount of BČarn. The Kingdom of Navarre had been occupied by the Spanish since 1512, and Antoine tried to re-establish it. He was ready to sacrifice anything to his political interests.
He had no real religious conviction and changed religions several times. His reconversion to Catholicism separated him from his wife. He had an affair with Louise de la BČraudiËre, "la belle Rouet," with whom he had a son in 1555.
Coat of Arms of Antoine de Bourbon and the Kings of Navarre.Although his brother was the head of the protestant faction, he spent most of his life fighting for the King of France. Catherine de Medici, regent for her son Charles IX of France, named him lieutenant general of the kingdom in 1561. When his wife allowed the Huguenots to sack the chapel of VendŮme and the churches of the town in 1562, he threatened to send her to a convent. She took refuge in BČarn.
Antoine was vain and unstable. He often disappointed his followers and was manipulated by his superiors and out-witted by his adversaries.
He laid siege to Rouen and was mortally wounded on November 13, 1562. He died at Les Andelys, Eure.
Antoine married Jeanne III Of NAVARRE 20 Oct 1548. Jeanne was born 07 Jan 1528; died 09 Jun 1572. [Group Sheet]
|5. ||Jeanne III Of NAVARRE was born 07 Jan 1528; died 09 Jun 1572. |
Excerpt from Wikipedia:
Jeanne d'Albret (January 7, 1528 ? June 9, 1572) was Queen of Navarre from 1555 to 1572, wife of Antoine de Bourbon, duke of Vendome and mother of Henry IV of France.
Jeanne was born in Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Yvelines in 1528, the daughter of Henry II of Navarre and Marguerite of Navarre. Marguerite was the sister of Francis I of France, and Jeanne grew up at the French court. In 1541, when she was thirteen, Francis married her to William "the Rich", Duke of J¸lich-Cleves-Berg, but this political marriage was annulled four years later.
After the death of Francis and the accession of Henry II Jeanne was married to Antoine de Bourbon, "first prince of the blood," who would become heir to the French throne if the Valois line died out.
In 1555 Henry II of Navarre died, and Jeanne and her husband became rulers of Navarre.
In the first year of her reign, Jeanne d'Albret called a conference of beleaguered Huguenot ministers which led to her declaring Calvinism the official religion of her kingdom.
The power struggle between Catholics and Huguenots for control of the French court and France as a whole led to the outbreak of the French Wars of Religion in 1562. Antoine de Bourbon chose to support the Catholics, but was mortally wounded at the siege of Rouen. Jeanne's son Henry now became "first prince of the blood."
In 1567 war broke out again, and Jeanne fled to the Huguenot city of La Rochelle. From here she conducted peace negotiations, and in 1570 official talks began to marry Henry to the king's sister Marguerite. She died in Paris two months before the wedding took place. A popular rumour of the time alleged that Jeanne had been poisoned by Catherine de Medici, the mother of her son's prospective bride.
Queen of Navarre (1555-1572)
Duchess of Albret (1555-1572)
Countess of Limoges (1555-1572)
Countess of Foix (1555-1572)
Countess of Armagnac (1555-1572)
Countess of Bigorre (1555-1572)
Countess of PČrigord (1555-1572)
Duchess of Bourbon (1548-1562)
Duchess of VendŮme (1550-1562)
Duchess of Beaumont (1550-1562)
Countess of Marle (1548-1562)
Countess of La FËre (1548-1562)
Countess of Soissons (1550-1562)
|6. ||Francesco DE'MEDICI, I was born 25 Mar 1541; died 19 Oct 1587. |
Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany (25 March 1541 ? 19 October 1587) was the second Grand Duke of Tuscany, ruling from 1574 to 1587.
He was the son of Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany and Eleonora di Toledo, and served as regent for his father starting in 1564.
On December 18, 1565, he married Johanna of Austria, youngest daughter of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor and Anna of Bohemia and Hungary.
By all reports, it was not a happy marriage. Joanna was homesick for her native Austria, and Francesco was neither charming nor faithful. After her death at age thirty (1578), there were rumors that Francesco and his Venetian mistress, Bianca Cappello, had conspired to poison Joanna. The Medici marriages of his day were not exemplar. Pietro, the younger brother of Francesco, had his wife's paramour killed; subsequently, by report, when his wife became distraught at learning the news, he personally strangled her. Soon after the Grand Duchess Joanna had died, Francesco himself went on to marry Bianca, after aptly disposing of her husband, a Florentine bureaucrat. By report, he built and decorated Villa Pratolino for her. She was, however, not always popular among Florentines. They had no children, but Francesco adopted her daughter by first marriage Pellegrina (1564- ?) and her son Antonio (August 29, 1576 - May 2, 1621), who was first adopted as newborn child by Bianca Cappello with the intention to present him to Francesco as "own child" by means of changeling.
Francesco I of Tuscany as a young boy, painting by Bronzino.Like his father, Francesco was often despotic, but while Cosimo had known how to maintain Florentine independence, Francesco acted more like a vassal of his father-in-law, the emperor, and subsequent Holy Roman Emperors. He continued the heavy taxation of his subjects in order to pay large sums to the empire.
He had an amateur's interest in manufacturing and sciences. He founded porcelain and stoneware manufacture, but these did not thrive until after his death. He continued his father's patronage of the arts, supporting artists and building the Medici Theater as well as founding the Accademia della Crusca. He was also passionately interested in chemistry and alchemy and spent many hours in his private laboratory/curio collection, the Studiolo in the Palazzo Vecchio, which held his collections of natural item and stones and allowed him to dabble in amateur chemistry and alchemical schemes.
Francesco and Bianca died on the same day, possibly poisoned or, more likely, from malarial fever. Because of her infamy and low social rank, she was refused burial in the family tomb. Francesco was succeeded by his younger brother Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany.
There is a famous portrait of Francesco as a child by Agnolo Bronzino, which hangs in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence.
Francesco married Johanna Of AUSTRIA 18 Dec 1565. Johanna (daughter of Ferdinand I Holy Roman EMPEROR and Anna Of Bohemia And HUNGARY) was born 24 Jan 1547; died 10 Apr 1578. [Group Sheet]
|14. ||Ferdinand I Holy Roman EMPEROR was born 10 Mar 1503, Madrid (son of Philip I The Handsome King Of CASTILE and Juana Queen Of CASTILE); died 25 Jul 1564. |
Ferdinand I (10 March 1503 ? 25 July 1564), Holy Roman Emperor (1556?1564), was born in Madrid, the son of Juana the Mad, Queen of Castile (1479?1555), and Philip I the Handsome, King of Castile (1478?1506), who was heir to Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I of Habsburg.
Ferdinand was the younger brother of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, who entrusted him with the government of the Habsburg hereditary lands (roughly modern-day Austria and Slovenia). In 1531 Ferdinand was elected King of the Romans, making him Charles's designated heir as emperor. He deputised as ruler during his brother's many absences from imperial lands.
After Charles's abdication as emperor in 1556, Ferdinand assumed the title of Holy Roman Emperor, Charles having agreed to exclude his own son Philip from the German succession, which instead passed to Ferdinand's eldest son Maximilian (1527?1576
Hungary and the Ottomans
After Suleiman the Magnificent defeated Ferdinand's brother-in-law Louis II, King of Bohemia and of Hungary, at the battle of Moh·cs on 29 August 1526, Ferdinand was elected King of Bohemia in his place. The throne of Hungary became the subject of a dynastic dispute between Ferdinand and John Z·polya, voivode of Transylvania. Each was supported by different factions of the nobility in the Hungarian kingdom; Ferdinand also had the support of Charles V, and Z·polya, after defeat by Ferdinand at the Battle of Tokaj in 1527, the support of Suleiman. Ferdinand was able to win control only of western Hungary because Z·polya clung to the east and the Ottomans to the conquered south. In 1554 Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq was sent to Istanbul by Ferdinand to discuss a border treaty over disputed land with the Sultan, Suleiman.
The most dangerous moment of Ferdinand's career came in 1529 when he took refuge in Bohemia from a massive but ultimately unsuccessful assault on his capital by Suleiman and the Ottoman armies at the Siege of Vienna. A further Ottoman attack on Vienna was repelled in 1533. In that year Ferdinand signed a peace treaty with the Ottoman Empire, splitting the Kingdom of Hungary into a Habsburg sector in the west and John Z·polya's domain in the east, the latter effectively now a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire.
In 1538, by the Treaty of Nagyv·rad, Ferdinand became Z·polya's successor, but he was unable to enforce this agreement during his lifetime because in 1540 John II Sigismund Z·polya, infant son of John Z·polya and Isabella Jagiello, was elected the new king of Hungary. He was initially supported by King Sigismund II Augustus of Poland and Lithuania, his mother's brother, but in 1549 a treaty was signed between the Habsburgs and the Polish ruler as a result of which Poland became neutral in the conflict, Sigismund Augustus marrying Elisabeth von Habsburg, Ferdinand's daughter.
The western rump of Hungary over which Ferdinand retained dominion became known as Royal Hungary. As the ruler of Austria, Bohemia and Royal Hungary, Ferdinand adopted a policy of centralization and, in common with other monarchs of the time, the construction of an absolute monarchy. In 1527 he published a constitution for his hereditary domains (Hofstaatsordnung) and established Austrian-style institutions in Pressburg for Hungary, in Prague for Bohemia, and in Wroclaw (Breslau) for Silesia. Opposition from the nobles in those realms forced him in 1559 to concede the independence of these institutions from supervision by the Austrian government in Vienna.
In 1547 the Bohemian Estates rebelled against Ferdinand when he ordered the Bohemian army against the German Protestants. After suppressing Prague with the help of his brother's Spanish forces, he retaliated by limiting the privileges of Bohemian cities and inserting a new bureaucracy of royal officials to control urban authorities. Ferdinand was a supporter of the Counter-Reformation and helped lead the Catholic fight-back against what he saw as the heretical tide of Protestantism. For example, in 1551 he invited the Jesuits to Vienna and in 1556 to Prague; and in 1561 he revived the archbishopric of Prague.
Ferdinand died in Vienna and is buried in St. Vitus Cathedral in Prague.
Names in other languages: German, Czech, Slovak, Croatian: Ferdinand I.; Hungarian: I. Ferdin·nd
Ferdinand married Anna Of Bohemia And HUNGARY 1521. Anna (daughter of Vladislaus II Of Bohemia And HUNGARY and Anne DE FOIX) was born 23 Jul 1503; died 27 Jan 1547. [Group Sheet]
|15. ||Anna Of Bohemia And HUNGARY was born 23 Jul 1503 (daughter of Vladislaus II Of Bohemia And HUNGARY and Anne DE FOIX); died 27 Jan 1547. |
Excerpt from Wikipedia:
Anna, Queen of Bohemia and Hungary, also sometimes known as Anna Jagellonica (July 23, 1503 - January 27, 1547) was Queen-consort of the Romans and heiress of the kingdoms of Hungary and Bohemia.
She was the elder child and only daughter of king Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary (1456-1516) and his fourth wife Anna of Foix-Candale. She was an older sister of Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia, and his eventual heiress.
Her paternal grandparents were King Casimir IV of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania, of the Jagiellon dynasty, and Elisabeth of Austria, one of the heiresses of Bohemia, duchy of Luxembourg and duchy of Kujavia. Her maternal grandparents were Gaston de Foix, Count of Candale and Catherine de Foix, Infanta of the Kingdom of Navarre.
She was born in Prague and for the first three years of her life was the heiress presumptive to the thrones of Bohemia and the Kingdom of Hungary. The birth of her younger brother Louis on July 1, 1506, demoted her to second-in-line. Her mother died on July 26 of the same year.
The death of Vladislaus II on March 13, 1516 left both siblings in the care of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor. It was arranged that Anna marry his grandson Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, second son of Queen regnant Joanna of Castile and her late husband and co-ruler Philip I of Castile.
Anna married Ferdinand on May 25, 1521 in Linz, Austria. At the time Ferdinand was governing the Habsburg hereditary lands on behalf of his older brother Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor.
Her brother Louis was killed in the Battle of Moh·cs against Suleiman the Magnificent of the Ottoman Empire on August 29, 1526. This left the thrones of both Bohemia and Hungary vacant, and Anna being the closest living relative of Louis, Ferdinand claimed both kingdoms in her right and was elected King of Bohemia on October 24 of the same year.
Hungary was a more difficult case. Suleiman had annexed much of its lands. Ferdinand was proclaimed King of Hungary by a group of nobles, but another faction of Hungarian nobles refused to allow a foreign ruler to hold that title and elected John Z·polya as an alternative king. The resulting conflict between the two rivals and their successors lasted until 1571.
In 1531 Ferdinand's older brother Charles V recognised Ferdinand as his successor as Holy Roman Emperor, and Ferdinand was elevated to the title King of the Romans.
Anna and Ferdinand had fifteen children, which was a boon to Bohemia and Hungary, both of which kingdoms had suffered for centuries from premature deaths among heirs and from a shortage of succession prospects.
Meanwhile Anna served as queen consort of Bohemia and as one of two rival queen consorts of Hungary until her death. She died in her native Prague.
In 1556 Charles V abdicated and Ferdinand succeeded as emperor, nine years after Anna's death.