|2. ||John The Fearless Duke Of BURGUNDY was born 1371 (son of Philip II Duke Of BURGUNDY and Margaret Of FLANDERS); died 10 Sep 1419, Assassinated. |
- Fact: Count of Flanders
- Fact: Duke of Burgundy
Duke John I aka Jean de Valois and Jean de Bourgogne (May 28, 1371, Dijon ? September 10, 1419, on the bridge of Montereau), also known as the Fearless (French: sans peur) was Duke of Burgundy from 1404 to 1419. John was the son of Philip II, the Bold and Margaret III, Countess of Flanders. As heir apparent, he used the title of Count of Nevers from 1384 to 1405, when after his accession he ceded it to his brother Philip
In 1385, John married Margaret of Bavaria, daughter of Albrecht of Bavaria, Count of Holland and Hainaut, to consolidate his position in the Low Countries, after cancelling his engagement with Catherine of Valois, daughter of king Charles V of France. They had the following children:
Catherine (1391?1414, Ghent)
Marie (1393 ? October 30, 1463, Monterberg bei Kalkar). She married Adolph I, Duke of Cleves. They were the great-grandparents of Johann III, Duke of Cleves, father of Anne of Cleves who was fourth Queen consort of Henry VIII of England.
Marguerite, duchess of Guyenne (1394 ? February 2, 1441, Paris), married on August 30, 1404 Louis of Valois the Dauphin (heir of king Charles VI of France), then on October 10, 1422 Arthur de Richemont, the future Duke of Brittany
Philip III, Duke of Burgundy (1396?1467)
Isabelle (d. September 18, 1412, Rouvre), married at Arras on July 22, 1406 to Olivier de Ch‚tillon-Blois, Count of PenthiËvre and PČrigord
Jeanne (b. 1399, Bouvres), d. young
Anne of Burgundy (1404 ? November 14, 1432, Paris), married John, Duke of Bedford
Agnes of Burgundy (1407 ? December 1, 1476, Ch‚teau de Moulins), married Charles I, Duke of Bourbon
John also had several illegitimate children.
Before his accession to the Duchy, John was one of the principal leaders of the French forces sent to aid King Sigismund of Hungary in his war against Sultan Bayezid I. John fought in the battle of Nicopolis (September 25, 1396) with such enthusiasm and bravery that he was given the nickname of Fearless (Sans-Peur). Nevertheless he was taken prisoner and released only in the next year, against an enormous ransom paid by his father.
 John vs OrlČans
John was invested as duke of Burgundy in 1404 and almost immediately entered into open conflict against Louis of OrlČans, younger brother of the increasingly mad Charles VI. Both men attempted to fill the power vacuum left by the demented king.
John played a game of marriages, exchanging his daughter Marguerite for Michelle of Valois, who would marry his heir Philip III. He did not overlook, however, the importance of the middle class of merchants and tradesman or the University of Paris.
Louis tried to gain the favor of Queen Isabella, and may have become her lover. After a game of hide and seek in which his son-in-law, the Dauphin, was successively kidnapped and recovered by both parties, the Duke of Burgundy managed to gain appointment by royal decree ? during one of the King's "absent" periods when mental illness manifested itself ? as guardian of the Dauphin and the king's children. This did not improve the relations between John and Louis.
Soon the two rivals descended into making open threats. Their uncle, John, Duke of Berry, secured a vow of solemn reconciliation, but three days later, on November 23, 1407 Louis was brutally assassinated in the streets of Paris. He was attacked after mounting his horse by a party of men who literally amputated his arms so that he was defenseless. The order, no one doubted, had come from the Duke of Burgundy, who shortly admitted to the deed and declared it to be a justifiable act of "tyrannicide". After an escape from Paris and a few skirmishes against the OrlČans party, John managed to recover the king's favour. In the treaty of Chartres, signed on March 9, 1409, the king absolved the Duke of Burgundy of the crime, and he and Louis's son Charles pledged a reconciliation. A later edict renewed John's guardianship of the Dauphin.
 John vs Armagnac
Even with the OrlČans dispute resolved to his favour, John would not have an easy life. Charles of OrlČans gathered allies, among them Bernard VII, Count of Armagnac, to support his claims for the property that had been confiscated from him. Peace was solemnly sworn in 1410, and John returned to Burgundy, and Bernard remained in Paris and reportedly shared the queen's bed. Armagnac's party was not contented with political power, and, after a series of riots and attacks against the citizens, John was recalled to the capital. However, he was sent back to Burgundy in 1413.
At this time king Henry V of England invaded French territory and threatened to attack Paris. John participated in the peace negotiations, but with dubious intent. Although he talked of helping his sovereign, his troops took no part in the Battle of Agincourt (in 1415), where two of his brothers, Antoine, Duke of Brabant, and Philip II, Count of Nevers, died fighting for France.
Assassination of the Duke of Burgundy, John the Fearless, on the Bridge of Montereau, in 1419. ? facsimile of a miniature in the "Chronicles" of Monstrelet, manuscript of the fifteenth century, in the Library of the Arsenal of Paris.
 John vs the Dauphin
Two years later, John's troops set about the task of gaining Paris. On May 30, 1418, he captured the city, but not before the Dauphin, the future Charles VII of France, had escaped. John then installed himself in the city and made himself protector of the King. Although not an open ally of the English, John did nothing to prevent the surrender of Rouen in 1419. With the whole of northern France in English hands and Paris occupied by Burgundy, the Dauphin tried to bring about a reconciliation with John. They met in July and swore peace on the bridge of Pouilly, near Melun. On the grounds that peace was not sufficiently assured by the Pouilly meeting, a fresh interview was proposed by the Dauphin to take place on September 10, 1419 on the bridge at Montereau. John of Burgundy was present with his escort for what he considered a diplomatic meeting. He was, however, assassinated by the Dauphin's companions. He was later buried in Dijon.
John married Margaret Of BAVARIA 1385. Margaret (daughter of Albert I Duke Of BAVARIA and Margaret Of BRIEG) was born 1363; died 23 Jan 1423, Dijon. [Group Sheet]
|4. ||Philip II Duke Of BURGUNDY was born 17 Jan 1342 (son of John II King Of FRANCE and Bonne Of BOHEMIA); died 27 Apr 1404. |
- Also Known As: "the Bold"
- Fact: Duke of Burgundy
- Name: Philip Audax
- Birth: 1345
- Death: 1361
Philip II, Duke of Burgundy, known as the Bold (Philippe II de Bourgogne, le Hardi in French) (January 15, 1342, Pontoise ? April 27, 1404, Halle), was the fourth son of King John II of France and his wife, Bonne of Luxembourg.
He was created Duke of Touraine in 1360, but as a reward for his valor at the Battle of Poitiers, in 1363 this was exchanged for the Duchy of Burgundy which Philip ruled until his death. Between 1380 and 1388 he ruled France with his brothers, Louis I of Anjou and John, Duke of Berry, as co-regents, during the minority of their nephew, Charles VI. He and his brother Berry again took up the regency when Charles shown signs of insanity in 1392, holding it until 1402, when Charles put affairs in the hands of his brother, the Duke of Orleans. Orleans's misrule led to Philip once again being placed in power shortly before his death in 1404.
In 1390, he obtained the County of Charolais, which would later become the title of the heirs of his duchy.
He was the founder of the second and last ducal House of Burgundy. He married Margaret III, Countess of Flanders (1350?1404/5) on June 19, 1369, thereby uniting the rich dominions of Burgundy and Flanders.
Philip married Margaret Of FLANDERS 19 Jun 1369. Margaret (daughter of Louis II Of FLANDERS and Margaret Of BRABANT) was born 1350; died 1405. [Group Sheet]
|6. ||Albert I Duke Of BAVARIA was born 25 Jul 1336, Munich (son of Louis IV and Margarete Countess Of HOLLAND); died 13 Dec 1404, The Hague. |
- Fact: Regent of Hainault, Holland and Zeeland
- Name: Albert Count Of Holland
- Name: Albert I Of Holland Duke Of Lower Bavaria
- Death: Between 1403 and 1404
Duke Albert I or Albrecht (July 25, 1336, Munich ? December 13, 1404, The Hague) was a feudal ruler of the counties of Holland, Hainaut, and Zeeland in the Low Countries. Additionally he held a portion of the Bavarian province of Straubing, it being his Bavarian ducal line's appanage and seat.
He was the third son of Empress Margaret, daughter of William III, Count of Holland and Hainaut, from her marriage with Ludwig of Bavaria. Ludwig also had sons from his first marriage. Albert was originally a younger son, apportioned at best an appanage. He was only 10 years old when his father the Emperor died, leaving most of his Bavarian inheritance to the eldest half-brother, but also some appanages to the younger sons.
His elder brother, William V, Count of Hainaut, had engaged in a long struggle with their mother, obtaining Holland and Zeeland from her in 1354, and Hainaut on her death in 1356. William V was supported by the party of burghers of cities. They were opposed to by Hooks, the party of disaffected nobles who were supporters of Willem's mother Empress Margaret (who had been Countess of Holland, Zeeland and Hainault in succession to her brother Willem IV, who was killed in battle). Margaret had resigned her sovereignty in favour of her son William V, but the result was a period of great upheavals and chaos that gave rise to the formation of these two opposing parties.
However, William's insanity resulted in the appointment of the 22-year-old Albert as governor (regent, ruwaard) of his brother's territories from 1358 onwards. During Albert's regency, affairs ran smoothly and trade improved. Troubles between the two political parties, the Hooks (Hoeks) and Cods (Kabeljauws), remained barely beneath the surface. William lived for another thirty years; Albert did not formally succeed him until his death in 1388, by which time he had already married his daughters to a number of Imperial princes and other nobles. The eldest daughter to have issue was Margaret; her son Philip III, Duke of Burgundy would ultimately inherit Albert's territories.
In Albert's own reign, real troubles erupted between the parties because of a woman: Albrecht always had mistresses, but this time his attentions were drawn to Aleid van Poelgeest, a Cod, very beautiful, who gained political influence which was resented. A plot was hatched among the Hooks as well as members of Albrecht's household; and one September night in 1392 Aleid was murdered in The Hague.
In his rage Albrecht persecuted the Hoeks, by sword and fire, conquering one castle after the other. Even his own son and heir did not feel safe and went to live in Hainault. During his last years, Albrecht fought the Frisians. They were beaten time and time again, but were never completely conquered.
On Albert's death in 1404, he was succeeded by his eldest son, William. A younger son, John III, became Bishop of LiËge. However, on William's death in 1417, a war of succession broke out between John and William's daughter Jacqueline of Hainaut. This would be the last episode of the Hook and Cod wars and finally place the counties into Burgundian hands.
He had several illegitimate children.
Albert contracted a second marriage in 1394 in Heusden with Margaret of Cleves (c. 1375-1412), sister of Adolf I, Duke of Cleves, but they had no children.
Albert — Margaret Of BRIEG. Margaret was born 1342; died 1386. [Group Sheet]
|8. ||John II King Of FRANCE was born 16 Apr 1319 (son of Philippe VI Of FRANCE and Jeanne Of BURGUNDY); died 08 Apr 1364. |
John II of France (French: Jean II de France; April 16, 1319?April 8, 1364), was Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, and Duke of Normandy from 1332, Count of Poitiers from 1344, and Duke of Guyenne from 1345, and King of France from 1350 until his death, as well as Duke of Burgundy from 1361 on. John was a member of the Valois Dynasty and was the son of Philippe VI and Jeanne of Burgundy. John was nicknamed John the Good (Jean le Bon).
John's coronation as king took place in 1350 in the Notre-Dame de Reims. As king, John surrounded himself with poor administrators, preferring to enjoy the good life his wealth as king brought. The men he relied on to administer his kingdom were brutal thieves but eventually King Jean changed.
In the 1356 Battle of Poitiers against Edward, the Black Prince (son of King Edward III of England), Jean suffered a humiliating defeat and was taken as captive back to England. While negotiating a peace accord, he was at first held in the Savoy Palace, then at a variety of locations, including Windsor, Hertford, Somerton Castle in Lincolnshire, and Berkhamsted Castle in Hertfordshire. A local tradition in St Albans is that he was held in a house in that town, at the site of the 15th-century Fleur de Lys inn, before he was moved to Hertford. There is a sign on the inn to that effect, but apparently no evidence to confirm the tradition . Eventually, John was taken to the Tower of London.
As a prisoner of the English, John was granted royal privileges, permitted to travel about, and to enjoy a regal lifestyle. At a time when law and order was breaking down in France and the government was having a hard time raising money for the defense of the realm, his account books during his captivity show that he was purchasing horses, pets and clothes while maintaining an astrologer and a court band.
The 1360 Treaty of BrČtigny set his ransom at 3,000,000 crowns. In keeping with the honor between himself and King Edward III, and leaving his son Louis of Anjou in English-held Calais as a replacement hostage, John was allowed to return to France to raise his ransom funds.
While King John tried to raise the money, his son Louis, accorded the same royal dignity, easily escaped from the English. An angry King John surrendered himself again to the English, claiming an inability to pay the ransom as the reason. The true motive of John's decision remains murky today, with many pointing to the devastation in France caused by war with England and the Jacquerie peasant uprising as likely candidates. His councillors and nearly the whole nation was critical of the decision, since they had raised the ransom through painstaking sacrifice. However Jean arrived in England in early 1364, looked upon by ordinary citizens and English royalty alike with great admiration. Accordingly, he was held as an honored prisoner in the Savoy Palace but died in London a few months later.
His body was returned to France, where he was interred in the royal chambers at Saint Denis Basilica
John — Bonne Of BOHEMIA. Bonne (daughter of John I King Of BOHEMIA and Elizabeth Of BOHEMIA) was born 20 May 1315; died 11 Sep 1349. [Group Sheet]
|12. ||Louis IV was born 1282 (son of Louis II and Mechtild Of HABSBURG); died 11 Oct 1347. |
- Fact: Known as Ludwig the Bavarian
- Fact 1: Duke of Bavaria in Upper Bavaria
- Fact 2: Count Palatine of the Rhine
- Fact 4: King of Italy
- Fact 5: Holy Roman Emperor
- Name: LewisLudwig IV Emperor Of Bavaria
Louis IV of Bavaria (also known as Ludwig the Bavarian) of the House of Wittelsbach (born 1282; died October 11, 1347) was duke of Bavaria from 1294/1301 together with his brother Rudolf I, also count of the Palatinate until 1329 and, German king since 1314 and crowned as Holy Roman Emperor in 1328. Louis died on October 11, 1347 when he suffered a stroke during a bear-hunt in Puch near F¸rstenfeldbruck. He is buried in the Frauenkirche in Munich.
Louis was a son of Louis II, Duke of Upper Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine, and Mechthild (Matilda), a daughter of King Rudolph I.
 Early reign as Duke of Upper Bavaria
Though Louis was partly educated in Vienna and became co-regent of his brother Rudolf I in Upper Bavaria in 1301 with the support of his Habsburg mother Mechthild and her brother King Albert I, he quarrelled with the Habsburgs from 1307 over possessions in Lower Bavaria. A civil war against his brother Rudolf due to new disputes on the partition of their lands was ended in 1313, when peace was made at Munich.
In the same year Louis defeated his Habsburg cousin Frederick the Handsome. Originally, he was a friend of Frederick, with whom he had been raised. However, armed conflict arose when the tutelage over the young Dukes of Lower Bavaria (Henry XIV, Otto IV and Henry XV) was entrusted to Frederick. On November 9, 1313, Frederick was beaten by Louis in the Battle of Gamelsdorf and had to renounce the tutelage.
 Election as German King and conflict with Habsburg
After the death of Holy Roman Emperor Henry VII, the Luxemburg party among the prince electors set aside Henry's son, John of Luxembourg, because of his youth and chose Louis as rival king to Frederick the Handsome. Louis was elected in October 1314 upon the instigation of the Archbishop of Mainz with four of the seven votes. Louis then was quickly crowned by the Archbishop of Cologne, in Bonn instead of Aachen. In the following conflict between both kings Louis recognized in 1316 the independence of Switzerland from Habsburg.
After several years of bloody war, victory finally seemed within the grasp of Frederick, who was strongly supported by his brother Leopold. However, Frederick's army was in the end decisively beaten in the Battle of M¸hldorf on September 28, 1322 on the Ampfing Heath, where Frederick and 1300 nobles from Austria and Salzburg were captured.
Louis held Frederick captive in Trausnitz Castle for three years, but the determined resistance by Frederick's brother Leopold, the retreat of the King of Bohemia from his alliance, and the Pope's ban induced Louis to release Frederick in the Treaty of Trausnitz of March 13, 1325. In this agreement, Frederick finally recognized Louis as legitimate ruler and undertook to return to captivity if he did not succeed in convincing his brothers to submit to Louis.
As he did not manage to overcome Leopold's obstinacy, Frederick returned to Munich as a prisoner, even though the Pope had released him from his oath. Louis, who was impressed by such nobility, renewed the old friendship with Frederick and they both agreed to rule the Empire jointly.
Since the Pope and the electors strongly objected to this agreement, another treaty was signed at Ulm on January 7, 1326, according to which Frederick would administer Germany as King of the Romans, while Louis would be crowned as Holy Roman Emperor in Italy.
However, after Leopold's death in 1326, Frederick withdrew from the regency of the Empire and returned to rule only Austria. He died on January 13, 1330.
 Coronation as Holy Roman Emperor and conflict with the Pope
Golden Bull of Louis IV 1326Despite Louis' victory, Pope John XXII still refused to ratify his election, and in 1324 he excommunicated Louis, but the sanction had less effect than in earlier disputes between emperors and the papacy.
After the reconciliation with Habsburg in 1326, Louis marched to Italy and was crowned King of Italy in Milan in 1327. Already in 1323 Louis had sent an army to Italy to protect Milan against the Kingdom of Naples which was together with France the strongest ally of the papacy.
In January 1328 Louis entered Rome and had himself crowned emperor by the aged senator Sciarra Colonna, called captain of the Roman people. Three months later Louis published a decree declaring "Jacque de Cahors" (Pope John XXII) deposed on grounds of heresy. He then installed a Spiritual Franciscan, Pietro Rainalducci as Antipope Nicholas V, who was deposed after Louis left Rome in early 1329. In fulfilment of an oath, on his return from Italy Louis founded Ettal Abbey on April 28, 1330. Philosophers such as Michael of Cesena, Marsilius of Padua and William of Ockham were now protected at the emperor's court in Munich.
The failure of later negotiations with the papacy led in 1338 to the declaration at Rhense by six electors to the effect that election by all or the majority of the electors automatically conferred the royal title and rule over the empire, without papal confirmation.
Louis also allied in 1337 with Edward III of England against Philip VI of France, the protector of the new Pope Benedict XII in Avignon. Philip had prevented any agreement between the emperor and the pope. In 1338 Edward III was the emperor's guest at the Imperial Diet in the Kastorkirche at Coblence. But in 1341 Louis deserted Edward but came only temporarily to terms with Philip. The expected English payments were missing and Louis intended to reach an agreement with the pope one more time.
Louis IV was a protector of the Teutonic Knights. In 1337 he allegedly bestowed upon the Teutonic Order a privilege to conquer Lithuania and Russia, although the Order had only petitioned for three small territories. Later he forbade the Order to stand trial before foreign courts in their territorial conflicts with foreign rulers.
Louis concentrated his energies also on the economic development of the cities of the empire, so his name can be found in many city chronicles for the privileges he granted.
In 1323 Louis gave Brandenburg as a fiefdom to his eldest son Louis V. With the Treaty of Pavia the emperor returned the Palatinate to his nephews in 1329. The duchy of Carinthia was released as an imperial fief on May 2, 1335 in Linz to his Habsburg relative Albert II, Duke of Austria. In 1340 Louis inherited Lower Bavaria and then reunited the duchy of Bavaria. The mother of the last duke of Lower Bavaria, a member of the Luxemburg dynasty, had to return to Bohemia.
In 1342 Louis also acquired Tyrol by voiding the first marriage of Margarete Maultasch with John Henry of Bohemia and marrying her to his own son Louis V, thus alienating the house of Luxemburg even more. In 1345 the emperor further antagonized the lay princes by conferring Hainaut, Holland, Zeeland and Friesland upon his wife Margaret of Holland. The hereditary titles of Magaret's two sisters, one of them the queen of England, were ignored. Due to the dangerous hostility of the Luxemburg Louis had increased his power base ruthlessly.
Conflict with Luxemburg
The acquisition of these territories and his restless foreign policy had earned Louis many enemies among the German princes. In the summer of 1346 the Luxemburg Charles IV was elected rival king, with the support of Pope Clement VI. Louis himself obtained much support from the Imperial Free Cities and the knighthood and successfully resisted Charles, who was widely regarded as a papal puppet ("rex clericorum"). Also the Habsburg dukes stayed loyal to Louis. In the Battle of CrČcy Charles' father John of Luxemburg was killed; Charles himself also took part in the battle but escaped.
Louis' sudden death the following year avoided a longer civil war. The sons of Louis supported G¸nther von Schwarzburg as new rival king to Charles but finally joined the Luxemburg party after G¸nther's early death in 1349 and divided the Wittelsbach possesions among each other again.
Louis married Margarete Countess Of HOLLAND 1324. Margarete (daughter of William III and Jeanne Of VALOIS) was born 1311, Le Quesnoy, Nord, France; died 23 Jun 1356, Le Quesnoy, Nord, France; was buried , Valenciennes, Nord, france. [Group Sheet]