Male 1601 - 1643  (41 years)

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  • Name Louis XIII King Of FRANCE  [1
    Born 27 Sep 1601  [1
    Gender Male 
    Died 14 May 1643  [1
    • Louis XIII (September 27, 1601 ? May 14, 1643), called the Just (French: le Juste), was King of France from 1610 to 1643.

      Early life
      Born at the Ch‚teau de Fontainebleau, Louis XIII was the eldest child of Henry IV of France (1589?1610) and Marie de' Medici. His father was the first Bourbon King of France, having succeeded his ninth cousin, Henry III of France (1574?89), in application of the Salic law. Louis XIII's paternal grandparents were Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendome and Jeanne d'Albret, Queen of Navarre; his maternal grandparents were Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany and Johanna, archduchess of Austria.

      Louis XIII ascended to the throne of France in 1610, at the age of eight and a half, upon the assassination of his father. His mother acted as Regent until Louis XIII came of age at thirteen, but she clung to power unofficially until in frustration he took the reins of government into his own hands at the age of fifteen. The assassination of Concino Concini (April 24, 1617), who had greatly influenced Marie's policymaking, effectively removed the Queen Mother's favorites from positions of power. Louis then came into his own as ruler of France. He immediately instated his own advisors to the crown, Jean-Louck Tromblin and Christoph Charleaux, in order to maintain his power. He filled his court with loyal friends and executed those who remained loyal to his mother. Under Louis XIII's rule, the Bourbon Dynasty sustained itself effectively on the throne that Henry IV had recently secured; but the question of freedom of religion continued to haunt the country.

      The brilliant and energetic Cardinal Richelieu played a major role in Louis XIII's administration from 1624, decisively shaping the destiny of France for the next 18 years and dying only months before the King himself. As a result of Richelieu's work, Louis XIII became one of the first exemplars of an absolute monarch. Under Louis XIII the Habsburgs were humiliated, the French nobility was firmly kept in line behind their King, and the special privileges granted to the Huguenots by his father were retracted. Furthermore, Louis XIII had the port of Le Havre modernized and built up a powerful navy.

      The King also did everything to reverse the trend for the promising artists of France to work and study in Italy. Louis XIII commissioned the great artists Nicolas Poussin and Philippe de Champaigne to decorate the Luxembourg Palace. In foreign matters, Louis XIII organized the development and administration of New France, expanding the settlement of Quebec westward along the Saint Lawrence River from Quebec City to Montreal.

      On November 9, 1615, aged only 14, Louis XIII was married to a Habsburg Princess, Anne of Austria (1601?66), daughter of King Philip III of Spain (1598?1621). Their marriage was not consummated until 1619 (when he was 18) and his most intense emotional ties were with a series of handsome men. The marriage, like many Bourbon-Habsburg relationships, was only briefly a happy one, and the King's duties often kept them apart. After 23 years of marriage and four miscarriages, Anne finally gave birth to a son in 1638.

      Though Richelieu was firmly in charge of French policies, the King's favorites left their mark on the reign. The first was the duc de Luynes, 23 years his senior, who was the boy's closest adult friend and adviser at the outset of his reign. The last of the King's favorites (1639?42) was the much younger marquis de Cinq-Mars, who was executed for conspiring with the Spanish enemy in time of war.

      After Louis XIII's death in 1643, his wife Anne acted as regent for their four-year-old son, Louis XIV of France (1643?1715).
    Person ID I23153  Main Tree

    Father Henry IV King Of FRANCE,   b. 13 Dec 1553,   d. 14 May 1610  (Age 56 years) 
    Relationship Natural 
    Mother Maria DE'MEDICI,   b. 26 Apr 1573, Florence Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 03 Jul 1642, Cologne Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 69 years) 
    Relationship Natural 
    Married Oct 1600  [1
    Family ID F17449  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family Anne Of AUSTRIA,   b. 22 Sep 1601,   d. 20 Jan 1666  (Age 64 years) 
    Married 24 Nov 1615  [1
    +1. Louis XIV King Of FRANCE,   b. 05 Sep 1638,   d. 01 Sep 1715  (Age 76 years)  [Birth]
    +2. Philip I Duke Of ORLEANS,   b. 21 Sep 1640,   d. 08 Jun 1701  (Age 60 years)  [Birth]
    Family ID F17507  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Sources 
    1. [S03581] Wikipedia Encyclopedia.