1435 - 1435 (0 years)
|2. ||Duarte I King Of PORTUGAL was born 31 Oct 1391 (son of John I King Of PORTUGAL and Philippa Of LANCASTER); died 18 Sep 1438; was buried , Alcobaca. |
- Name: Edward I Of Portugal
- Residence: Between 1433 and 1438, King of Portugal
Duarte I, King of Portugal KG (Viseu, October 31, 1391 - Tomar, September 13, 1438) (pron. IPA [du'a?t(?)]; Edward, in English), the Philosopher or the Eloquent, the 11th king of Portugal and Algarve and second Lord of Ceuta. He was the son of King Jo„o I of Portugal (John I of Portugal) and his wife, Philippa of Lancaster, a daughter of John of Gaunt.
As a prince, Edward (Duarte) always followed his father, King Jo„o I, in the affairs of the kingdom. He was knighted in 1415, after the Portuguese captured the city of Ceuta in North Africa, across from Gibraltar. He became king in 1433 when his father died of the plague and he soon showed interest in internal consensus. During his short reign of five years, Duarte called the Cortes (the national assembly) no less than five times to discuss internal affairs and politics. He also followed the politics of his father concerning the maritime exploration of Africa. He encouraged and financed his famous brother, Prince Henry the Navigator who founded a school of maritime navigation at Sagres and who initiated many expeditions. Among these, that of Gil Eanes in 1434 first rounded Cape Bojador on the NW coast of Africa, leading the way for further exploration southward along the African coast.
The colony at Ceuta rapidly became a drain on the Portuguese treasury and it was realised that without the city of Tangier, possession of Ceuta was worthless. When Ceuta was lost to the Portuguese, the camel caravans that were part of the overland trade routes began to use Tangier as their destination. This deprived Ceuta of the materials and goods that made it an attractive market and a vibrant trading locale, and it became an isolated community.
In 1437, his brothers, Henry (Henrique) and Fernando, persuaded Duarte to launch an attack on Morocco in order to get a better African base for future Atlantic exploration. The expedition was not unanimously supported: Pedro, Duke of Coimbra and John, duke of Aveiro were both against the initiative; they preferred to avoid conflict with the king of Morocco. They proved to be right. The resulting attack on Tangier was successful, but at a great cost of men. Duarte's youngest brother, Fernando, was captured, kept as a hostage, and he died later in captivity in Fez. Duarte died soon after the Tangier attack of the plague, like his father and mother (and her mother) before him.
Another less political side of Duarte's personality is related to culture. A reflective and scholarly prince, he wrote the treatises O Leal Conselheiro (The Loyal Counsellor) and Livro Da Ensinanca De Bem Cavalgar Toda Sela (The Art of Riding on Every Saddle) as well as several poems. He was in the process of revising the Portuguese law code when he died.
Duarte married Leonor Of ARAGON 22 Sep 1428. Leonor (daughter of Ferdinand I The Just King Of ARAGON and Eleanor Of ALBUQUERQUE) was born 1402; died 19 Feb 1445, Toledo. [Group Sheet]
|4. ||John I King Of PORTUGAL was born 11 Apr 1358 (son of Peter I King Of PORTUGAL); died 14 Aug 1433, Lisbon; was buried , Batalha. |
Jo„o I, King of Portugal KG (pron. IPA /?u'?~u/), in English, John I (the Good or sometimes, the Great or even the One of Good Memory) (Lisbon, April 11, 1357 ? August 14, 1433 in Lisbon) was the 10th king of Portugal and Algarve and the first to use the title Lord of Ceuta. He was the natural son of Pedro I by a noble Galician lady called Teresa LourenÁo. In 1364 he was created grand-master of the Order of Aviz. He became king of Portugal and Algarve in 1385, after the 1383?1385 Crisis.
On the death of his lawful brother Fernando in October 1383, without a male heir, strenuous efforts were made to secure the succession for princess Beatrice, his only daughter. As heiress-apparent Beatrice had been married to king John I of Castile, but the popular voice declared against an arrangement by which Portugal would virtually have become united with Castile. The 1383?1385 Crisis followed as a period of political anarchy, when no king ruled the country.
On April 6, 1385, the council of the kingdom (cortes in Portuguese) met in Coimbra and declared Jo„o, then Master of Aviz, king of Portugal. This was in effect a declaration of war against Castile and its claims to the Portuguese throne. Soon after, the king of Castile invaded Portugal, with the purpose of conquering Lisbon and removing Jo„o I from the throne. Juan I was accompanied by French allied cavalry as English troops and generals took the side of Jo„o (see Hundred years war). Jo„o I then named Nuno Alvares Pereira, his loyal and talented supporter, general and protector of the Kingdom. The invasion was repelled during the Summer after the Battle of Atoleiros, but especially after the decisive battle of Aljubarrota (August 14, 1385), where the Castilian army was virtually annihilated. Juan I of Castile then retreated and the stability of Jo„o I's throne was permanently secured.
A statue of John in the PraÁa da Figueira, LisbonIn 1387, Jo„o I married Philippa of Lancaster, daughter of John of Gaunt who had proved to be a worthy ally, consolidating the union of the Anglo-Portuguese Alliance that endures to the present day.
After the death of Juan of Castile in 1390, without leaving issue by Beatrice, Jo„o I ruled in peace and pursued the economic development of the country. The only significant military action was the siege and conquest of the city of Ceuta in 1415. By this step he aimed to control navigation of the African coast. But in longer perspective, this was the first step opening the arabian world to medieval Europe, which in fact led to the age of sailing across whole world.
Contemporaneous writers describe him as a man of wit, very keen on concentrating the power on himself, but at the same time with a benevolent and kind personality. His youth education as master of a religious order made him an unusually learned king in the Middle Ages. His love for knowledge and culture was passed to his sons: Duarte, the future king, was a poet and a writer, Pedro, the duke of Coimbra, was one of the most learned princes of his time and Prince Henry the Navigator, the duke of Viseu, started a school of navigation and invested heavily in science and development of nautical topics. In 1430, his only surviving daughter, Isabella, married Philip III, Duke of Burgundy and enjoyed an extremely refined court in his lands; she was the mother of Charles the Bold.
John married Philippa Of LANCASTER Between 02 and 11 Feb 1387, Oporto. Philippa (daughter of John Of GAUNT and Blanche Of LANCASTER) was born 31 Mar 1360, Leicester; died 19 Jul 1415, Odivelas, near Lisbon; was buried , Batalha. [Group Sheet]
|6. ||Ferdinand I The Just King Of ARAGON was born 27 Nov 1380; died 02 Apr 1416. |
- Fact: Between 1412 and 1416, King of Aragon and Sicily
In 1406, upon the death of his elder brother King Henry III of Castile, Ferdinand declined the Castilian crown and instead, with Henry's widow Catherine, became coregent during the minority of his nephew John II of Castile. In this capacity he distinguished himself by his prudent administration of domestic affairs.
After Ferdinand's maternal uncle, Martin I of Aragon (as Martin II, also King of Sicily) died without surviving issue, Ferdinand was chosen king in 1412 to succeed him by the Pact of Caspe.
The most notabe accomplishment of his brief reign was his agreement in 1416 to depose the Antipope Benedict XIII, thereby helping to end the Great Schism, which had divided the Western Church for nearly 40 years.
Ferdinand married Eleanor Of ALBUQUERQUE 1393. Eleanor (daughter of Sancho Of ALBURQUERQUE) was born 1374; died 1435. [Group Sheet]
|8. ||Peter I King Of PORTUGAL was born 08 Apr 1320 (son of Alfonso IV Of PORTUGAL and Beatrice Of CASTILE); died 18 Jan 1367. |
Pedro I, King of Portugal (pron. IPA ['ped?u]; April 8, 1320 ? January 18, 1367) was the eighth king of Portugal and Algarve (in English, Peter I), (not to be confused with Pedro of Castile, also known as Pedro the Cruel) known as the Just (Port. o Justiceiro). He was the third but only surviving son of Afonso IV of Portugal and his wife, princess Beatrice of Castile. Pedro I succeeded his father in 1357.
Afonso IV married his daughter Maria to Alfonso XI of Castile, but quickly learned that she was being mistreated by her husband. Alfonso's cousin, Juan Manuel, had also been rebuffed by the king when his daughter Constanza was rejected in favor of the Portuguese princess. Feeling as though his daughter was being dishonored, Afonso was glad to enter into an alliance with Juan Manuel and married Pedro to Constanza. When Constanza arrived in Portugal, InÍs de Castro, the daughter of a Castilian landed aristocrat accompanied her as her lady-in-waiting. Pedro fell in love with InÍs very quickly and the two conducted an affair until Constanza's death in 1345. The scandal of this affair caused Afonso to banish InÍs from court, but this did not end the relationship since the two began living together in secret. According to the chronicle of Fern„o Lopes, this period was when Pedro began giving InÍs' brothers important positions at court. This behavior alarmed Afonso and made him believe that upon his death the Portuguese throne would fall to Castilians. This is the official motive behind Afonso's next actions: he sent three men to find InÍs and murder her in 1355. Pedro's rage at the murder of his love is what supposedly sparked his desire to revolt against his father. This revolt lasted from 1355 until 1356 when Afonso defeated his son. One year later, in 1357, Afonso died and Pedro succeeded the throne.
Fern„o Lopes labels Pedro as "the Just" and said that Pedro loved justice, especially the dispensing of it, something which he enjoyed doing himself. InÍs' assassins were the recipients of his harshest punishment. The three had escaped to Castile, but Pedro arranged for them to be exchanged with Castilian fugitives residing in Portugal with his nephew, the Castilian Pedro I. One man escaped, but the other two were brought to justice, and Lopes said that Pedro ripped their hearts out with his own bare hands. There is a possibility that Pedro of Portugal has been confused with Pedro I of Castile: they are both Pedro I, they both lived at the same time, the two were closely related, and are both credited with committing violent acts towards their subjects. Despite his gruesome legacy, Pedro of Portugal did lead a peacful reign and managed to install a system of justice which was relatively fair for the times. He attempted this with his Benepl·cito RČgio in 1361, which forbade any Papal Bulls to be published without his prior consent. This was a result of the number of fake papal documents that had been entering the country. He also began the "nationalization" of the military orders by placing his youngest son Jo„o (the illegitinate son born after the death of InÍs) as the Master of the Order of Avis. He did attempt to claim that he and InÍs had been married and therefore their four children were legitimate, but nothing ever came of this, and InÍs' children went to live in Castile.
Legend holds that Pedro later had InÍs' body exhumed and placed on a throne, dressed in rich robes and jewels, and required all of his vassals to kiss the hand of the deceased "queen". This has never been proven, but what is known is that Pedro did have InÍs' body exhumed from her resting place in Coimbra and taken to AlcobaÁa where her body was laid to rest in the monastery. Pedro had two tombs commissioned for the monastery, one for each of them. The tombs still exist today; they are images of Pedro and InÍs facing each other, and inscribed on the marble is "AtČ o fim do mundo..." or "Until the end of the world..."
Pedro was also the father of Fernando I and Jo„o I. Jo„o was the Master of the military order of Avis, and he would become the founder of the Avis dynasty in 1385 after defeating an attempt by Juan I to usurp the Portuguese throne.
|10. ||John Of GAUNT was born Mar 1340, St Bavon's Abbey, Ghent, Flanders (son of Edward III King Of ENGLAND and Philippa Of HAINAULT); died 03 Feb 1399, Leicester Castle, England; was buried , St.Paul's Cathedral, London, England. |
- Fact: John Plantagenet
- Fact: Knight of the Garter
- Fact: Prince of England
- Fact: 2nd Duke of Lancaster
- Fact: 5th Earl of Lancaster, Derby, Lincoln, and Leicester
- Fact: 20 Sep 1342, Earl of Richmond
- Fact: 13 Nov 1362, Duke Of Lancaster
- Fact: Sep 1371, Titular King of Castile and Leon
- Fact: 2 Mar 1390, Duke of Aquitaine
[Hulett FTW from MC Scott.FTW]
Earl of Richmond. Some say born Jun 1340, but see CP vol.XIV,p.421.Earl of Derby, Lincoln. Duke of Aquitaine. Lord of Beaufort & Nogent.Burke says he died at Ely House, Holborn King of Castile & Leon. Lord of Bergerac & Roche-sur-Yon. The Complete Peerage vol.VII,pp.410-416 & vol.XIV,p.421.
John of Lancaster (f Gaunt), Duke of Lancaster, fourth son, was married for the third time at Lincoln Cathedral on 13 Jan. 1395/6 to Katherine De Roet, widow of Hugh Swynford, Knt., of Coleby and Ketelthorpe, co., Lincoln. (died 1372), and younger daughter and co-heiress of Pain de Roet, Knt., Guienne King of Arms, a Hainaulter, and one of the knights of Queen Philippe's household. She was born probably in Hainault, about 1350 and had formerly been the governess to his daughters, and then his mistress, and by her he had children, born before marriage. The marriage was ratified and confirmed during the Great Schism by the Roman pope, Boniface IX. Their three sons were legitimised, with the assent of parliament, on 9 Feb. 1396/7, the patent confirmed by King Henry IV of 10 Feb. 1406/7, but with a saving clause barring them from succession to the throne. Their children were given the name Beaufort from their father's (lost) castle in Champagne which had devolved on him through his first wife, Blanche of Lancaster, a descendant of Blanche d'Artois who had purchased the lordship of Beaufort in 1270.
He was created Earl of Richmond on 20 Sep 1342. He was created Duke of Lancaster on 13 Nov 1362 in consequence of the marriage, and was ancestor of the Lancastrian Kings of England. In her right (Constance De Castille) John assumed in September 1371 the title of King of Castille and Leon. From 1376 until his death his diplomatic and military services in France and Guienne, and in Scotland, and his Spanish expedition (1386-88) formed interludes in the factious life of politics in which, as eldest uncle of King Richard II and his chief subject, he was involved. He was created Duke of Aquitaine on 2 Mar 1390.
John married Blanche Of LANCASTER 19 May 1359, Queen's Chapel, Reading. Blanche (daughter of Henry "The Wryneck" Of GROSMENT and Isabel DE BEAUMONT) was born 25 Mar 1345; died 12 Sep 1368, Bolingbroke Castle; was buried , St. Paul's Cathedral. [Group Sheet]
|11. ||Blanche Of LANCASTER was born 25 Mar 1345 (daughter of Henry "The Wryneck" Of GROSMENT and Isabel DE BEAUMONT); died 12 Sep 1368, Bolingbroke Castle; was buried , St. Paul's Cathedral. |
- 5. Philippa Of LANCASTER was born 31 Mar 1360, Leicester; died 19 Jul 1415, Odivelas, near Lisbon; was buried , Batalha.
- John Of LANCASTER was born Abt 1362; died , young; was buried , St. Mary's Church.
- Edward Of LANCASTER was born Abt 1365; died , young; was buried , St. Mary's Church.
- Elizabeth Of LANCASTER was born 21 Feb 1363/4; died 24 Nov 1425; was buried , Burford Church, Salop.
- John Of LANCASTER was born Bef 4 May 1366; died , young.
- Henry IV King Of ENGLAND was born 04 Apr 1366, Bolingbroke Castle, England; died 20 Mar 1413, Jerusalem Chamber, Westminster Abbey; was buried , Canterbury Cathedral.
- Isabel Of LANCASTER was born Abt 1368; died , young.