1202 - 1280 (77 years)
|1. ||Marguerite DE HAINAUT was born 02 Jun 1202, Constantinople, Turkey (daughter of Baldwin VI and Marie Of CHAMPAGNE); died 10 Feb 1279/80; was buried , Flines-Laes-Mortagne, Nord, France. |
- Also Known As: Countess of Hainaut and Flanders
Marguerite married Bouchard DE AVESNES Bef 23 Jul 1212; divorced 1221. Bouchard (son of Jacques D'AVESNES and Adele DE GUISE) was born Abt 1180; died Between 1243/4, Etraeungt, Nord, France; was buried , Abbey of Clairefontaine. [Group Sheet]
- John I DE AVESNES was born 01 May 1218, Etraeungt, Nord, France; died 24 Dec 1256/7, Valenciennes, Nord, france; was buried , Valenciennes, Nord, france.
|2. ||Baldwin VI was born Jul 1172 (son of Baldwin V and Marguerite Of LORRAINE); died 11 Jun 1215, Bulgaria. |
- Fact: Emperor of Constantinople
- Name: Baldwin VI Count Of Flanders And Hainault
- Birth: Jul 1171, Valenciennes, France
- Fact: 1204, Emperor of the East and a leader of the 4th Crusade
Baldwin I (July 1172 ? 1205, Bulgaria), the first emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople, as Baldwin IX Count of Flanders and as Baldwin VI Count of Hainaut, was one of the most prominent leaders of the Fourth Crusade, which resulted in the capture of Constantinople, the conquest of the greater part of the Byzantine Empire, and the foundation of the Latin Empire, also known as Romania (not to be confused with modern Romania).
Baldwin was the son of Baldwin V of Hainaut, and Margaret I, sister of Philip of Alsace and Countess of Flanders. When Philip died childless in 1191, he was succeeded in Flanders by Baldwin V, who ruled as Baldwin VIII of Flanders by right of marriage.
In 1186, the younger Baldwin married Marie of Champagne, daughter of count Henry I of Champagne. The chronicler Gislebert describes Baldwin as being infatuated with his young bride, who nevertheless preferred prayer to the marital bed. Gislebert claims Baldwin was "tied only to one woman", his wife.
Through Marie, Baldwin had additional connections and obligations to the defenders of the Holy Land: Her brother Henry II of Champagne had been King of Jerusalem in the 1190s (leaving a widow and two daughters who needed help to keep and regain their territories in Palestine). Marie's uncles Richard I of England and Philip II of France had just been on the Third Crusade.
Baldwin's own family had also been involved in defence of Jerusalem: his uncle Philip had died on Crusade. Baldwin's mother's mother was great-aunt of Isabella, Queen of Jerusalem and the Counts of Flanders had tried to help Jerusalem relatives in their struggle. Baldwin wanted to continue the tradition.
Margaret died in 1194, and the younger Baldwin became Count of Flanders. His father died the next year, and he succeeded to Hainaut.
Count of Flanders and Hainaut
Baldwin took possession of a much-reduced Flanders, for his uncle had given a large chunk, including Artois, as dowry to Baldwin's sister Isabelle of Hainaut on her marriage to King Philip II of France, and another significant piece to his own wife. Isabelle had died in 1190, but King Philip still retained her dowry, on behalf of Isabella's son, the future Louis VIII of France. The eight years of Baldwin's rule in Flanders were dominated by his attempts to recover some of this land, culminating in January 1200 in the Treaty of PÈronne, in which Philip returned most of Artois.
In this fight against the French king, Baldwin allied with others who had quarrels with Philip, including kings Richard I and John of England, and the German King Otto IV.
A month after the treaty, on February 23, 1200, Baldwin took the cross -- that is, he committed to embark on a crusade. He spent the next two years preparing, finally leaving on April 14, 1202.
As part of his effort to leave his domains in good order, Baldwin issued two notable charters for Hainaut. One detailed an extensive criminal code, and appears to be based on a now-lost charter of his father. The other laid down specific rules for inheritance. These are an important part of the legal tradition in Belgium.
Baldwin left behind his two-year-old daughter and his pregnant wife, Countess Marie. By early 1204, she had left both her children behind to join him in the East. They expected to return in a couple of years, but in the end neither would see their children or their homeland again.
Marie was regent for Baldwin for the two years she remained in Flanders and Hainaut. Afterward, Baldwin's younger brother Philip of Namur was regent and also had custody of the daughters. Baldwin's uncle William of Thy (an illegitimate son of Baldwin IV of Hainaut) was regent for Hainaut.
Meanwhile, the crusade had been diverted to Constantinople, where the crusaders had captured and sacked the city, and decided to set up a Latin empire in place of the fallen Greek one.
The imperial crown was offered to, and refused by, Enrico Dandolo, Doge of Venice. The choice then lay between Baldwin and Boniface of Montferrat. Baldwin was elected on May 9, 1204, and crowned on May 16. He was young, gallant, pious, and virtuous, one of the few who interpreted and observed his crusading vows strictly; the most popular leader in the host.
Baldwin's wife Marie, unaware of these events, had sailed to Acre. There she learned of her husband's election as emperor, but died of the plague in August 1204 before she could join him.
The Latin Empire was organized on feudal principles; the emperor was feudal superior of the princes who received portions of the conquered territory. His own special portion consisted of the city of Constantinople, the adjacent regions both on the European and the Asiatic side, along with some outlying districts, and several islands including Lemnos, Lesbos, Chios and Tenos. The territories still had to be conquered; and first of all it was necessary to break the resistance of the Greeks in Thrace and secure Thessalonica. In this enterprise in the summer of 1204, Baldwin came into collision with Boniface of Montferrat, the rival candidate for the empire, who was to receive a large territory in Macedonia with the title of King of Salonica. He hoped to make himself quite independent of the empire, to do no homage for his kingdom, and he opposed Baldwin's proposal to march to Thessalonica. The antagonism between Flemings and Lombards aggravated the quarrel. Baldwin insisted on going to Thessalonica; Boniface laid siege to Adrianople, where Baldwin had established a governor; civil war seemed inevitable. An agreement was effected by the efforts of Dandolo and the count of Blois. Boniface received Thessalonica as a fief from the emperor, and was appointed commander of the forces which were to march to the conquest of Greece.
During the following winter (1204?1205) the Franks prosecuted conquests in Bithynia, in which Henry, Baldwin's brother, took part. But in February the Greeks revolted in Thrace, relying on the assistance of John (Kaloyan), tsar of Bulgaria, whose overtures of alliance had been rejected by the emperor. The garrison of Adrianople was expelled. Baldwin along with Dandolo, the count of Blois, and Marshal Villehardouin, the historian, marched to besiege that city. The Frankish knights were defeated (April 14, 1205); the count of Blois was slain, and the emperor captured (see Battle of Adrianople).
For some time his fate was uncertain, and in the meanwhile Henry, his brother, assumed the regency. Not till the middle of July was it definitely ascertained that he was dead. It seems that he was at first treated well as a valuable hostage, but was sacrificed by the Bulgarian monarch in a sudden outburst of rage, perhaps in consequence of the revolt of Philippopolis, which passed into the hands of the Franks. According to a Bulgarian legend, Baldwin tried to seduce Kaloyan's wife. Tsar Kaloyan wrote to Pope Innocent III, reporting that Baldwin had died in prison. A tower of the Tsarevets fortress of the medieval Bulgarian capital, Veliko Tarnovo, is still called "Baldwin's Tower".
Children and Successors
It was not until July 1206 that the Latins in Constantinople had reliable information that Baldwin was dead. His brother Henry was crowned emperor in August.
Back in Flanders, however, there seemed to be doubt whether Baldwin was truly dead. In any case, Baldwin's other brother Philip of Namur remained as regent, and eventually both of Baldwin's daughters Jeanne and Margaret were to rule as countesses of Flanders.
The False Baldwin
Twenty years later, in 1225, a man appeared in Flanders claiming to be the presumed dead Baldwin. His claim soon became entangled in a series of rebellions and revolts in Flanders against the rule of Baldwin's daughter Jeanne. A number of people who had known Baldwin before the crusade met the supposed count and emperor and rejected his claim. In the end he was executed in 1226.
Baldwin married Marie Of CHAMPAGNE 06 Jan 1185/6. Marie (daughter of Henri I Count Of CHAMPAGNE and Marie Of FRANCE) was born 1174, Champagne, France; died 09 Aug 1204. [Group Sheet]
|3. ||Marie Of CHAMPAGNE was born 1174, Champagne, France (daughter of Henri I Count Of CHAMPAGNE and Marie Of FRANCE); died 09 Aug 1204. |
- 1. Marguerite DE HAINAUT was born 02 Jun 1202, Constantinople, Turkey; died 10 Feb 1279/80; was buried , Flines-Laes-Mortagne, Nord, France.
- Jeanne Of FLANDERS was born 1188, Valenciennes, Nord, france; died 05 Dec 1244, Marquette Les Lile, Nord, France.
|5. ||Marguerite Of LORRAINE was born Abt 1140 (daughter of Thierry I Of LORRAINE and Sybil Of ANJOU); died 17 Dec 1194/5. |
- Name: Margaret Of Flanders
- Birth: Abt 1148, Alsace, France
- Death: 15 Nov 1194
- Yolande Of FLANDERS was born 1175, Flanders, Belgium; died 26 Aug 1219, Constantinople, Turkey.
- Philippe I Count Of NAMUR was born 1174, Hainaut, Belgium; died 1212, Namur, Belgium.
- 2. Baldwin VI was born Jul 1172; died 11 Jun 1215, Bulgaria.
- Eustach DE FLANDRE was born Abt 1191, Flanders, Belgium; died Aft 1217.
- Isabelle Of HAINAULT was born Apr 1170, Valenciennes, Flandres; died 15 Mar 1190, Paris, Isle De France, France; was buried , Notre Dame De Paris, Paris, Isle De France.
- Henri DE FLANDERS was born 1176, Flanders, Belgium; died 11 Jul 1216.
|13. ||Mathilde Of CARINTHIA was born Abt 1105 (daughter of Engelbert II Duke Of CARINTHIA and Uta Of PASSAU); died 13 Dec 1160, Fontevrault. |
- Also Known As: Mathilda Von Sponheim
- Agnes Of BLOIS was born Abt 1138; died 07 Aug 1207.
- Stephen Count Of SANCERRE
- William Of CHAMPAGNE
- 6. Henri I Count Of CHAMPAGNE was born Abt 1126, Champagne, France; died 17 Mar 1181, In the Holy Land; was buried , St Etienne, france.
- Thibaud V Count Of Blois And CHAMPAGNE was born 1148, Blois, France; died 1190, Seige Of Acre; was buried , Pontigny.
- Alix Of CHAMPAGNE was born Abt 1140, Blois, France; died Between 04 and 24 Jun 1206, Paris, Isle De France; was buried , Abbey Of Pontigny in Burgundy.
- Mary Countess Of Champagne BLOIS was born Abt 1129, Champagne, France; died Abt 1190.
|14. ||Louis VII was born Abt 1120, Reims, Champagne, France (son of Louis VI and Adelaide Of SAVOY); died 18 Sep 1180, Paris, Isle De France; was buried , Abbey Of Barbeau, Melun. |
- Also Known As: "the Young"
- Crowned: 25 Oct 1131, Rheims
- Reigned: Between 1137 and 1180
- Crowned: 25 Dec 1137, Bourges
- Fact: Between 1170 and 1180, King of France
Louis married Eleanor Of AQUITAINE 22 Jul 1137, Bordeaux. Eleanor (daughter of William X Duke Of AQUITAINE and Eleanor DE CHATELLERAULT) was born Abt 1122, Chateau De Belin, Bordeaux, Aquitaine; died 31 Mar 1204, Poiters, Poitou, Aquitaine; was buried , Abbeye De Fontevrault, Fontevrault, France. [Group Sheet]
|15. ||Eleanor Of AQUITAINE was born Abt 1122, Chateau De Belin, Bordeaux, Aquitaine (daughter of William X Duke Of AQUITAINE and Eleanor DE CHATELLERAULT); died 31 Mar 1204, Poiters, Poitou, Aquitaine; was buried , Abbeye De Fontevrault, Fontevrault, France. |
- Also Known As: Eleanor Of Aquitaine
- Name: Eleanor Aquatine
- Crowned: Between 17 and 19 Dec 1154, Queen of England at Westminster Abbey
- Crowned: 25 Dec 1137, Queen of France at Bourges
Eleanor was crowned with her husband on December 19, 1154 at Westminster Abbey.