1319 - 1375 (56 years)
|1. ||Stephen II was born 1319 (son of Louis IV and Beatrix of POLAND); died 13 May 1375, Landshut. |
- Fact: Duke of Bavaria in Lower Bavaria, Landshut, and Upper Bavaria
Duke Stephen II of Bavaria (1319?13 May 1375, Landshut) (German: Stephan II mit der Hafte, Herzog von Bayern), since 1347 Duke of Bavaria. He was the second son of Emperor Louis IV and Beatrix of Silesia-Glogau and a member of the Wittelsbach dynasty.
His father reunited Bavaria in 1340 but in 1349 the country was divided for the emperor's six sons again in Upper Bavaria, Lower Bavaria-Landshut und Bavaria-Straubing. Stephen II ruled from 1349 to 1353 together with his brothers William I and Albert I in Holland and Lower Bavaria-Landshut, since 1353 only in Lower Bavaria-Landshut.
After the temporary reconcilement of the Wittelsbach with Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor, who had finally confirmed all Wittelsbach possessions, Stephen joined Charles' march into Italy in 1354. But already the Golden Bull of 1356 caused a new conflict since only the Palatinate branch of the Wittelsbach and his brother Louis VI the Roman as margrave of Brandenburg were invested with the electoral dignity. Stephen II was the last son of Emperor Louis IV absolved from the excommunication in 1362.
When Duke Meinhard, the son of his older brother Louis V died in 1363, Stephen II succeeded also in Upper Bavaria and invaded Tyrol. To strengthen his position he confederated with BernabÚ Visconti. Stephen finally renounced Tyrol for Habsburg with the Peace of Sch‰rding against a huge compensation after the death of Margarete Maultasch in 1369.
His conflict with his brother Louis VI the Roman on the heritage of Meinhard finally caused also the loss of Brandenburg for the Wittelsbach dynasty since Louis then made Charles IV his contracted heir. However Stephen accepted his brother Otto, the last Wittelsbach regent of Brandenburg, as his nominal co-regent when he returned to Bavaria in 1373. Stephen was succeeded by his three sons.
Stephen married Isabella Of SICILY 27 Jun 1328. Isabella died 1349. [Group Sheet]
- Stephen III Duke Of BAVARIA was born 1337; died 26 Sep 1413, Niederschonfeld.
- Agnes Of BAVARIA was born 1338.
- Friedrich was born Abt 1339; died 1393.
- John II Of BAVARIA-MUNICH was born 1341; died 1397.
Stephen married Margarete Of NUREMBERG 14 Feb 1359. [Group Sheet]
|2. ||Louis IV was born 1282 (son of Louis II and Mechtild Of HABSBURG); died 11 Oct 1347. |
- Fact: Known as Ludwig the Bavarian
- Fact 1: Duke of Bavaria in Upper Bavaria
- Fact 2: Count Palatine of the Rhine
- Fact 4: King of Italy
- Fact 5: Holy Roman Emperor
- Name: LewisLudwig IV Emperor Of Bavaria
Louis IV of Bavaria (also known as Ludwig the Bavarian) of the House of Wittelsbach (born 1282; died October 11, 1347) was duke of Bavaria from 1294/1301 together with his brother Rudolf I, also count of the Palatinate until 1329 and, German king since 1314 and crowned as Holy Roman Emperor in 1328. Louis died on October 11, 1347 when he suffered a stroke during a bear-hunt in Puch near F¸rstenfeldbruck. He is buried in the Frauenkirche in Munich.
Louis was a son of Louis II, Duke of Upper Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine, and Mechthild (Matilda), a daughter of King Rudolph I.
 Early reign as Duke of Upper Bavaria
Though Louis was partly educated in Vienna and became co-regent of his brother Rudolf I in Upper Bavaria in 1301 with the support of his Habsburg mother Mechthild and her brother King Albert I, he quarrelled with the Habsburgs from 1307 over possessions in Lower Bavaria. A civil war against his brother Rudolf due to new disputes on the partition of their lands was ended in 1313, when peace was made at Munich.
In the same year Louis defeated his Habsburg cousin Frederick the Handsome. Originally, he was a friend of Frederick, with whom he had been raised. However, armed conflict arose when the tutelage over the young Dukes of Lower Bavaria (Henry XIV, Otto IV and Henry XV) was entrusted to Frederick. On November 9, 1313, Frederick was beaten by Louis in the Battle of Gamelsdorf and had to renounce the tutelage.
 Election as German King and conflict with Habsburg
After the death of Holy Roman Emperor Henry VII, the Luxemburg party among the prince electors set aside Henry's son, John of Luxembourg, because of his youth and chose Louis as rival king to Frederick the Handsome. Louis was elected in October 1314 upon the instigation of the Archbishop of Mainz with four of the seven votes. Louis then was quickly crowned by the Archbishop of Cologne, in Bonn instead of Aachen. In the following conflict between both kings Louis recognized in 1316 the independence of Switzerland from Habsburg.
After several years of bloody war, victory finally seemed within the grasp of Frederick, who was strongly supported by his brother Leopold. However, Frederick's army was in the end decisively beaten in the Battle of M¸hldorf on September 28, 1322 on the Ampfing Heath, where Frederick and 1300 nobles from Austria and Salzburg were captured.
Louis held Frederick captive in Trausnitz Castle for three years, but the determined resistance by Frederick's brother Leopold, the retreat of the King of Bohemia from his alliance, and the Pope's ban induced Louis to release Frederick in the Treaty of Trausnitz of March 13, 1325. In this agreement, Frederick finally recognized Louis as legitimate ruler and undertook to return to captivity if he did not succeed in convincing his brothers to submit to Louis.
As he did not manage to overcome Leopold's obstinacy, Frederick returned to Munich as a prisoner, even though the Pope had released him from his oath. Louis, who was impressed by such nobility, renewed the old friendship with Frederick and they both agreed to rule the Empire jointly.
Since the Pope and the electors strongly objected to this agreement, another treaty was signed at Ulm on January 7, 1326, according to which Frederick would administer Germany as King of the Romans, while Louis would be crowned as Holy Roman Emperor in Italy.
However, after Leopold's death in 1326, Frederick withdrew from the regency of the Empire and returned to rule only Austria. He died on January 13, 1330.
 Coronation as Holy Roman Emperor and conflict with the Pope
Golden Bull of Louis IV 1326Despite Louis' victory, Pope John XXII still refused to ratify his election, and in 1324 he excommunicated Louis, but the sanction had less effect than in earlier disputes between emperors and the papacy.
After the reconciliation with Habsburg in 1326, Louis marched to Italy and was crowned King of Italy in Milan in 1327. Already in 1323 Louis had sent an army to Italy to protect Milan against the Kingdom of Naples which was together with France the strongest ally of the papacy.
In January 1328 Louis entered Rome and had himself crowned emperor by the aged senator Sciarra Colonna, called captain of the Roman people. Three months later Louis published a decree declaring "Jacque de Cahors" (Pope John XXII) deposed on grounds of heresy. He then installed a Spiritual Franciscan, Pietro Rainalducci as Antipope Nicholas V, who was deposed after Louis left Rome in early 1329. In fulfilment of an oath, on his return from Italy Louis founded Ettal Abbey on April 28, 1330. Philosophers such as Michael of Cesena, Marsilius of Padua and William of Ockham were now protected at the emperor's court in Munich.
The failure of later negotiations with the papacy led in 1338 to the declaration at Rhense by six electors to the effect that election by all or the majority of the electors automatically conferred the royal title and rule over the empire, without papal confirmation.
Louis also allied in 1337 with Edward III of England against Philip VI of France, the protector of the new Pope Benedict XII in Avignon. Philip had prevented any agreement between the emperor and the pope. In 1338 Edward III was the emperor's guest at the Imperial Diet in the Kastorkirche at Coblence. But in 1341 Louis deserted Edward but came only temporarily to terms with Philip. The expected English payments were missing and Louis intended to reach an agreement with the pope one more time.
Louis IV was a protector of the Teutonic Knights. In 1337 he allegedly bestowed upon the Teutonic Order a privilege to conquer Lithuania and Russia, although the Order had only petitioned for three small territories. Later he forbade the Order to stand trial before foreign courts in their territorial conflicts with foreign rulers.
Louis concentrated his energies also on the economic development of the cities of the empire, so his name can be found in many city chronicles for the privileges he granted.
In 1323 Louis gave Brandenburg as a fiefdom to his eldest son Louis V. With the Treaty of Pavia the emperor returned the Palatinate to his nephews in 1329. The duchy of Carinthia was released as an imperial fief on May 2, 1335 in Linz to his Habsburg relative Albert II, Duke of Austria. In 1340 Louis inherited Lower Bavaria and then reunited the duchy of Bavaria. The mother of the last duke of Lower Bavaria, a member of the Luxemburg dynasty, had to return to Bohemia.
In 1342 Louis also acquired Tyrol by voiding the first marriage of Margarete Maultasch with John Henry of Bohemia and marrying her to his own son Louis V, thus alienating the house of Luxemburg even more. In 1345 the emperor further antagonized the lay princes by conferring Hainaut, Holland, Zeeland and Friesland upon his wife Margaret of Holland. The hereditary titles of Magaret's two sisters, one of them the queen of England, were ignored. Due to the dangerous hostility of the Luxemburg Louis had increased his power base ruthlessly.
Conflict with Luxemburg
The acquisition of these territories and his restless foreign policy had earned Louis many enemies among the German princes. In the summer of 1346 the Luxemburg Charles IV was elected rival king, with the support of Pope Clement VI. Louis himself obtained much support from the Imperial Free Cities and the knighthood and successfully resisted Charles, who was widely regarded as a papal puppet ("rex clericorum"). Also the Habsburg dukes stayed loyal to Louis. In the Battle of CrÈcy Charles' father John of Luxemburg was killed; Charles himself also took part in the battle but escaped.
Louis' sudden death the following year avoided a longer civil war. The sons of Louis supported G¸nther von Schwarzburg as new rival king to Charles but finally joined the Luxemburg party after G¸nther's early death in 1349 and divided the Wittelsbach possesions among each other again.
Louis married Beatrix of POLAND 1308/11. Beatrix (daughter of Bolko I and ? UNKNOWN) died 1322. [Group Sheet]